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HORMONES: Chemical messengers, released directly into the blood from endocrine glands (which do not have ducts).
The glands that make hormones are not themselves affected by their products; therefore most hormones are produced within secretory
vesicles by the Golgi apparatus.
The vesicles fuse with the cell surface membrane, releasing their…

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Transcription of a gene can be prevented by protein repressor molecules attaching to the DNA of the promoter region ­ this blocks the
attachment sites for transcription factors. Protein repressor molecules can also attach to the transcription factors themselves, preventing
them from forming the complex.

The control of transcription initiation…

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