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Hormones are chemical substances that help to regulate
processes in the body. Hormones are secreted by glands and
travel to their target organs in the bloodstream. Several
hormones are involved in the female menstrual cycle. Hormones
can be used to control human fertility and have advantages and


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pituitary follicle ovaries Triggers egg ripening and
gland stimulating oestrogen production in ovaries.
hormone (FSH)

pituitary luteinising ovaries Triggers egg release and
gland hormone (LH) progesterone production in ovaries.

testes testosterone male Controls puberty in males.

Control of internal conditions
It is important that the internal environment of…

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controlling blood flow to the skin

Blood sugar levels
This is controlled to provide cells with a constant supply of energy.
Blood sugar level is controlled by the release and storage of glucose
controlled by insulin [insulin: A hormone that regulates the level of
sugar in the blood.…

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The hormone LH causes the mature egg to be released from the ovary.
This image shows how the level of oestrogen changes during the
menstrual cycle. Progesterone is another hormone secreted by ovaries:
it maintains the lining of the uterus and stays high during pregnancy.

Hormone levels during the…

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Fertility treatment
Some women have difficulty becoming pregnant because they don't
produce enough FSH to allow their eggs to mature. 'Fertility drugs'
contain FSH, which stimulates eggs to mature in the ovary.

Benefits and problems of controlling fertility
Oral contraceptives
Oral contraceptives allow couples to choose the time they start…

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qualities. For example, they may want a girl if they have lots of boys in
the family, or they may wish to avoid producing a baby with an inherited


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