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THE HORMONAL SYSTEM SENDS
INFORMATION AS CHEMICAL SIGNALS
· Made up of glands called endocrine glands. E.g., Pancreas
secretes insulin.
· Hormones can be proteins or peptides (insulin) or can be
steroids (progesterone)
· Secreted when a gland is stimulated by change in
concentration of a specific hormone or when stimulated by
electrical impulses
· Diffuse directly into the blood
· Will bind to receptors on target tissues
· Triggers a response in target cells…read more

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FIRST AND SECOND MESSENGERS
Hormones are first messengers
When it activates an enzyme in the cell
mb, it catalyses the production of a
signalling molecule inside the cell. This
is the second messenger.…read more

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ADRENALINE CASCADE (STARTING IN
ADRENAL MEDULLA)
adrenaline
Activates
adenylate
cyclase
Catalyses production of
sencond messenger
CylcicAMP *(from ATP)
cAMP binds to protein Kinase
Activates Glycogen Phosphorylase
Kinase
Binds to glycogen phosphorylase which
catalyses breakdown of glycogen…read more

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TWO TYPES OF GLAND
Endocrine Exocrine
Secrete hormones directly into blood Secrete chemicals through ducts into
cavities or onto the surface of the body
Usually secrete enzymes
Some organs have endo and exocrine tissue so act as both kinds of gland…read more

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