Slides in this set
Anti-Androgens activity, or effects
of a male sex
Anti-androgenic pharmacotherapy uses medication to lower testosterone levels.
· Leads to a decrease of deviant and non-deviant sexual urges
· Preferred over the irreversible option of surgical castration
· Side effects are capable of being reversed
Cyproterone acetate (CPA) quickly
reduces sexual drive and deviant
fantasies. It has side effects as severe The female hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate
as liver dysfunction, but is as effective (MPA) decreases the functioning of testosterone. It acts
as castration in reducing recidivism by breaking down testosterone and inhibiting the
related offences. production of luteinising hormone through the pituitary
gland, which prevents the production of testosterone.
Side effects include breast enlargement, osteoporosis
and depression. This makes it more likely that an
individual will decline such treatments. Usually given in an
every seven to ten days.…read more
Evaluating the There is research support from Maletzky.
ETHICS & SOCIAL CONTROL
The treatment of criminality through hormones
treatment REASON OR MASK?!
can be argued to be a form of social control. It
may be beneficial to society as a whole by
modifying the individuals behaviour so that
Do hormone treatments tackle the
they become a productive member of society
DIFFERENT TREATMENT underlying reason for criminal behaviour or
or fit in better , however it does have social and
Anger management could be used as an just mask it? They don't tackle morality
moral issues. It doesn't really consider the
alternative treatment. It involves cognitive issues nor do they attempt to change
needs of the individual.
preparation, skill acquisition and application deviant thoughts. Leads us to question
practice. This treatment may be deemed whether criminal behaviour is really EXPENSE
more effective as there aren't any side inhibited or if it reappears when treatment Hormone therapy is available on the NHS.
affects and its more likely to have a long stops. This means that it should be available and
lasting effect. accessible to all. This would make it an
TIME effective treatment if it is widely used.
Should have a fairly quick response HOWEVER, Meletzkys study found that 41%
SIDE EFFECTS rate. MPA begins the breakdown of of the people recommended for treatment
Both hormone treatments have side affects. testosterone as soon as its didn't receive it. This suggests funding issues
EG. CPA can cause liver dysfunction, and administered. This may mean that its or problems preventing the treatment from
MPA can cause depression and breast quicker than behavioural techniques being offered in all areas.
enlargement. These side affects may reduce but it may be less effective in the long
peoples willingness to accept treatment and term.
their compliance whilst on it.…read more
Found that the use of anti-androgens (compared to no
treatment) led to lower rates of sexual recidivism and
MALETZKY 1991 decreased sexual arousal in response to stimuli that might
before have led to arousal.
To see the outcomes of being on MPA compared to not being on the treatment.
Was a retrospective review because it looked back over the history of 275 inmates after their release
to look at the recidivism rates of those on and off the MPA programme.
134 prisoners were deemed suitable for the treatment and 79 of them actually went on to have it.
Dose of MPA was given as an injection every 2 weeks (doses between 200-400mg a week)
Questionnaires were used to collect the outcome data. These were whether a new offence had been
committed since release, whether there had been a violation of parole conditions, whether the
offender had been re-arrested, whether any re-arrest had been down to sexual problems, and
whether the offender was employed.
The supervising officer of the offender also said whether they thought the offender was doing "well"
or "not"…read more
Those on the treatment committed fewer new offenses and no new sexual offences compared to
those off the treatment.
They also committed fewer parole violations, did not return to prison, and were considered as
"doing well" more often than the men recommended for the treatment but didn't receive it.
Chi square tests were carried out and showed significant differences between those on and off the
medication (e.g.. Those receiving medication were less likely to have returned to prison)
Those recommended to receive and who were receiving MPA were less likely to reoffend than those
recommended but not receiving it.
About 31% of those recommended but not receiving the treatment committed a new offence and
about 60% of these new offences were sexual ones.
Seemed like MPA did reduce sexual drive because, even when there were re-offenses by those
receiving the medication, they tended not to be sexual in nature.…read more
MALETZKY 1991 - EVALUATION Application
Research can be applied to the lives of real
Reliability offenders. The research demonstrates that MPA
The experiment was highly reliable. Maletzky's treatment is effective in reducing recidivism
research is backed up by many other research rates among criminals, and so it suggests that the
studies including Federoff et al (1992). Their treatment should be used more in order to
research looked at MPA and found that 15% of reduce the likelihood of a criminal reoffending.
those using MPS re-offended, compared with 68%
who were not taking MPA. Therefore, there is
May be low. The data gathered was
consistency in findings which strengthens the
retrospective, for example, the reason for
someone being back in prison relied upon the
supervisors memory. Therefore the data that
was collective may have been unreliable.
May be low. The supervisors were asked to make Validity was established. A variety of different
a judgement about whether the participant was measures were taken when looking at the
"doing well". This may involve some level of outcome data including details about
subjectivity as judgements could differ between employment and the actions of offenders under
supervisors. This also affects the reliability of parole. This meant that the outcomes focused on
results. more than just recidivism and provided rich and
valid data into the use of MPA.…read more