Slides in this set
Violence & struggle
· Based on the idea of `survival of the Fuhrerprinzip
·Hitler's ideas on violence & struggle were confused
fittest'. `leader ship principle'
· Humans and animals are in a constant ·Hitler believed that the fuhrer, or ruler should have
·Based his idea of `struggle' on the Social Darwinism. ultimate power over the people.
struggle to survive, (natural law) and those
· His belief in violence is clear throughout his reign ·The fuhrer represented the will of the public and only he
who succeed are superior.
from the `beer hall putsch' to his use of storm could lead them to greatness.
· Linked with Galton's ideas on biological
troopers, and ultimately, `the final solution' · The fuhrer's word was law, and his people owed him
inheritance. loyalty above all else, even conscience or religion.
·Believed that violence was the answer to all things.
·Hitler had the wrong idea about Darwinism ·No democracy, his rule was a dictatorship.
·Even his speech skills were used for verbal abuse
- used to justify Nazi's ideas on war and the ·Based on Nietzsche's superhuman theory.
·Hitler said: `The very first essential for success is a
extermination of several races.
perpetually constant and regular employment of
violence.' Also: `...those who do not want to fight in
this world of eternal struggle
do not deserve to live.'
Racial Superiority and · Wanted to unite all German people, reclaim lands lost in
Eugenics the ToV, and to claim lands that had never been part of the
· Germans (teutons) naturally superior, and purity Reich, but had a high German speaking population.
must be protected. · Thought that they needed space to expand eastwards
Nazi Ideology towards Russia, so that the German race could spread out
· Jews parasites, and causing the `decomposition'
of Germany. and populate Europe
·Herrenrasse or the idea of white supremacy was · German race superior, and their victory over inferior races
based on social Darwinism or `survival of the fittest'. was inevitable.
· Used this to justify what he was doing to the Jews, · Said in Mein Kampf that it was absurd for a superpower
and his eugenic programmes. (what he wanted Germany to become) to have so little
·Eugenics = selective breeding. Based on Galton's space.
·The racially impure where put into concentration
camps and later exterminated, and the mentally and
physically disabled went to sanatoriums or asylums
where they suffered from `accidental' deaths or
`world view' Volksgemeinschaft
· Hitler's world view, his philosophy on life. `people's community'
·Picked up when he was in the streets of Vienna, based on · Wanted to establish a national community, with
the skewed ideas of philosophers and social Darwinism. one unified mind and spirit.
· Used as a basis for the 25 point programme and was the ·Based on model of a classless society.
Traditional Values idea behind Mein Kampf. ·Believed that all aspects of culture and social life
· Role of women separate `spheres' ·Based on ideas of struggle, and right to power based on should be controlled.
but equal. ability to do so. ·The Nazi's saw themselves as a revolutionary
·Should be focused on KKK kids, ·If you want power, you should take it. movement who would lead Germany into a golden
kitchen, church. ·Linked to Fuhrerprinzip (one leader comes before all else), age.
·Discouraged from being lebensraum, the racial superiority of Aryans, the inferiority of ·The `volk' were the ordinary people, tied by blood
fashionable, thin, smoking or wearing Jews, and the creation of a volksgesmeinschaft. kinship in other words, Aryan. The inferior races,
trousers or makeup. · Hitler believed the state should come before all else and such as the Jews, were constantly seeking to
·To raise birth rate abortion illegal that individual rights did not matter. undermine the Aryan culture and their way of life, to
and contraception was hard to ·Saw himself as the architect of a great German state. contaminate and destroy it.
procure. ·Germany was an organism, and Jews were a disease.
·Jews were a counter race.…read more
·Women barred from politics, law, judiciary, Hitler wanted pure, healthy Aryans to populate
·From early years, girls taught their role in life.
medicine and the higher ranks of the civil his Reich. He put a number of policies in place
·High school syllabus changed so that girls
service. to achieve this.
taught mainly domestic subjects for example
Women in Nazi Germany
·Women banned from Nazi party leadership and ·Honour Cross of German Motherhood used
committees only 3% of the party was female. to raise the status of motherhood.
·In science classes, girls taught how to pick out
·In 1933, women formed 37% of the labour ·Marriage loans and birth grants used to boost
a good husband based on biological traits.
force. In 1936, it was only 33%, but higher in birth rate.
Hitler said `We will strangle higher education
some industries, like clothing, textiles, and ·High taxes on childless couples.
catering. ·Abortion and contraception banned.
·Girls prevented from taking university
·Figures fell even more by the start of the war. ·To make sure the babies born were HEALTHY,
entrance exams and only 10% of university
places were for women. compulsory sterilisation was introduced.
·To ensure babies born were ARYAN, the
Nuremburg Laws of 1935 banned marriage
between Aryans and
·After coming to power all women's
organisations were merged into one Women in Nazi Aims
the Deutsches Frauenwerk. · Hitler's aims regarding to women were
· It had 6 million members, and Germany clear. They were:
organised mother's schools to train
women in household and parenting. ·Encourage people to get married (only
·Girls organisations like the pure Aryans though) to:
Jungmaden promoted parenthood, and ·Increase birth rate (to fulfil Lebensraum,
taught girls their role in life. and to go to war)
·In the Jungmaden, having babies out of
· Get women OUT of work (so men could
marriage was not looked down upon
take their jobs fulfilling the promises he
almost approved of.
made regarding unemployment.)
Nazi failures. · Birth and marriage rate rose to begin with
· Nazis believed women had a very specific role in life.
· Birth and marriage rates rose in the beginning, ·Number of women attending recuperation homes
·Their purpose was to produce babies for the Fuhrer
but began to fall again, and were always lower rose, infant mortality fell.
than they had been in the 1920's. and the Motherland, bring up children, and care for
· 400,000 women deemed 'asocial' or genetically
·Number of births per marriage fell. their homes and their husbands.
·Divorce rate rose. ·Outside of specialist areas, there was no need for
·Many women idolised Hitler.
·Female employment actually ROSE because of women to work.
·By 1939, 12 million women were members of Nazi
rearmament. In 1937, many women had to go · `separate' sphere in life to men, but equally as
back to work organisations.
·Alexander De Grand has claimed that their ·Women successfully excluded from high powered
·Women should be blonde, blue eyes, broad hipped,
ideology could not be reconciled with their professional jobs and from universities.
economic needs. sturdy (for child bearing) and wear traditional,
·Tim Mason (historian) claims women were more
·90% of Aryan women married to Jews remained unfashionable clothes.
likely to support the Nazi regime than men, because
loyal. ·They should NOT smoke, wear make
most WERE content to be housewives and mothers.
·Nazi attempts to stop women wearing makeup, up or trousers.
American and French fashions, etc failed and had
to be abandoned.…read more
Good Nazi policies on women Bad
· Marriage loans and maternity · Economically excluded e.g. Doctors
subsidiaries if you had 4 children, could not be women, would could not be
you didn't have to pay the loan back. members of parliament, etc.
· Improved maternity care. ·Lost civil liberties they had enjoyed
previously make up, trousers, smoking
· Boosted moral and status, through
propaganda and the mother's cross. all frowned upon.
· Enabled young couple to get · `We will strangle higher education for
married. women' said Hitler. Only 10% of
university places were for women, and
·2 women's organisations set up they were not allowed to take entrance
NSF, DFW. exams.
·LPHDO sterilised 100,000 women who
were disabled or `feeble minded'.
If you were an Aryan woman who was happy to
be a housewife and have children for the ·Marriage to an `undesirable' forbidden.
Fuhrer, then Nazi policies benefited you
enormously. If you wanted to be educated or ·Easier for men to get a divorce,
wanted or needed to work, their policies were especially in their wife was infertile.
restrictive and detrimental. If you were unlucky
enough to be infertile or mentally/physically ·Contraception and abortions
disables, the effect of their policies would have unavailable.
been extremely damaging truly abysmal.…read more
· Originally, many university students supported ·Hitler needed to indoctrinate the German
Education and Youths in Nazi
the Nazis it was difficult for them to find work ·Education was crucial in creating a loyal
youth the create his 'Volksgemeinschaft' the
following for Hitler and the Nazi's
because of the Depression, and so they hoped the idea that every aspect of cultural and
·They believed that young Germanys should
Nazis could fulfil their promise of economic revival. educational life should be controlled comes
be loyal Nazis by the time they became adults
In 1931, 60% of all students supported the Nazis. from that principle.
they therefore needed to indoctrinate
·Many were disappointed though university · Also, attitude created supported the
German youths into the Nazi way of thinking.
lecturers dismissed (Jews, democrats and liberals) Fuhrerprinzip the idea Hitler's word was law.
·Wanted to dominate every aspect of their
·There was an anti-intellectual mood, and university
academics often suffered because of this.
·Hitler said:' He alone, who owns the youth,
·Numbers of people training to be university
gains the future.
teachers dropped, and so did the number of
students enrolled. There was also a drop in
the amount of women in universities.
· Catholic schools had their influence lessened. Two
years after the Nazis came to power, 76 out of 93
catholic elementary schools in Munich were
Resistance ·Adolf Hitler schools created for those who would be
·Though there was little resistance amongst the future leaders of Germany. 6 years of tough
Germany's young people, there were a few physical training, and then they went on to the army,
small groups of youths who did not go along Education and or university.
with the Nazi indoctrination. ·Order Castles took pupils to the limits of physical
·The swing kids though not an organised Youths in Nazi endurance. War games used live ammunition, pupils
resistance, their culture evolved into a non- Germany killed. Graduates could expect high position in the
violent refusal of Nazi ideology. party.
·They opposed the Nazi party, the Gestapo, ·High amount of prestige associated with the
Nazi policy, the HJ, and later, the war. specialist schools; students strived to get in.
·Edelweiss pirates a response to the strict
regimentation of youth culture, and consisted
of people who had avoided membership of
the HJ, the military, or the Reich Labour
·A Nazi curriculum enforced in schools History based
on glory of Germany and `stab in the back' Versailles · The Nazis tried to dominate every aspect of young
treaty, science became the study of different races, and
geography focused on the land taken from Germany in ·They controlled their leisure time by setting up
Results of Nazi changes to curriculum Versailles, and lebensraum. There was a military focus, youth organisations that you could participate in
·Teacher morale suffered in 1938, and PE was compulsory 15% of the timetable for boys. like the HJ.
there were only 17,00 teachers lower
·No RE religion contrasted with Nazi ideology. ·By 1932, HJ membership was 35,000, and in
than in the Weimar period.
1936, became compulsory.
·Whilst grammar schools maintained a ·All teachers vetted by local Nazi officials, and any
high status, standards in elementary and considered disloyal were sacked. ·Run by Baldur von Shirach.
vocational schools fell. ·97% of teachers joined the Nazi Teacher's League. ·Emphasis placed on physical fitness, and later on,
·Lack of focus on education resulted in military training.
less people going to university, and ·Many teachers attended camps and classes where they
Germany loosing it's world leadership in were `nazified'. By 1938, 2/3 of all teachers were ·Emphasised commonality a communal or
natural sciences. attending. collective approach with the individual having
little importance.…read more
How successful were the Nazis in their
Successful indoctrination of German youths? Unsuccessful
· All youth organisations forbidden in 1936 except Nazi
organisations. Not external influences contradicted · When the HJ .became compulsory, it
Nazi message. arguable became less effective, as it
included less committed youths.
· From 6-18, you could be involved in a youth
organisation, and membership of HJ was · Rival groups set up that the
compulsory. authorities could not deal with
properly. Edelweiss Pirates, White
· Young people joined the party in large numbers. Rose, Swing Kids.
· In 1936, membership of the HJ was 6,000,000+. · Many were able to evade membership
· Education centred on promoting Nazi ideology. of youth organisations 25% avoided
Focus on PE, science lessons focusing on eugenics, joining German Students League.
history focusing on glory of Germany, no RE. · Lack of importance placed on
· Any resistance was unorganised and not political in intellectual pursuits led to a a
nature, just the normal rebellion of young people. generation of poorly educated youths.
· Teachers had to be members of NSLB to ensure they
followed Nazi line, anyone who contradicted Nazi
ideology fired. Had to attend ideology camp and
By dominating every aspect of German
youth's lives, the Nazi's proved very
· University students forced to join German Students successful in indoctrinating children can be
League. seen from children reporting their parents to
· Nazi schools, like Adolf Hitler Schools, Order Castles, Nazi officials. Though there was some
NAPOLAS institutes encouraged pupils to strive to resistance, it was ineffective, and most did
not actively protest, just tried to avoid
be members because of their prestige. interference.…read more