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History of Medicine - Individuals
Hippocrates 460 BC 'The father of medicine', encouraged Clinical Observation and created the
Theory of the Four Humours.
Aristotle 384- 322 BC Greek thinker, collected Hippocratic ideas and produced a clear theory about
the cause and treatment of disease. Linked four humours to seasons.
Galen 130 AD His work with the Gladiators gave him a good understanding of the anatomy. He wrote
numerous books about the body that were accepted as being the truth for about a thousand years.
Supported Hippocratic ideas.
Rhazes 900 Ran a hospital and wrote about 200 medical books.
Ibn Sina 1037 Wrote `The Cannon of Medicine'
Ibn an Nafis 1242 Discovered blood couldn't go through the septum, actually went through the lungs.
Paracelsus 1483- 1541 German physician and chemist, disagreed with the theory of the four
humours. Believed that disease attacked from outside of the body.
Pare 1536 A French Army surgeon who discovered that tying the arteries was better than cautery
irons when healing gunshot wounds. Had problems with infection however.
Vesalius 1543 He dissected bodies and recorded his findings very accurately as drawings and text
('The fabric of the Human Body'). He corrected some of Galen's mistakes - his work led to other
people having a much greater understanding of the way the body works.
Columbo 1559 Discovered blood circulates through the arteries.
Fabricius 1579 Professor of anatomy at Padua. Identified valves in the veins.
Harvey 1628 Famous English doctor who proved, and accurately recorded in drawings, that the heart
was like a pump - with blood flowing around the body.
Jenner 1796 He created a vaccine for smallpox. The first time people could be made immune from a
disease. However he didn't know why it worked.
Davy 1799 Discovered nitrous oxide could be used as an anaesthetic to stop pain.
William Farr 1840's Brought in death certificates. The numbers dying from diseases could now be
Chadwick 1842 A Civil Servant who wrote an important report (The Chadwick Report) on the living
and working conditions of the labouring classes. His work resulted in Public Health being improved by
the Government of the day.
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Morton & Warren 1846 Removed a tumour painlessly form a patient's neck with ether.
Simpson 1847 Though not the first to attempt to reduce pain in operations, Simpson's use of
Chloroform led to the use of anaesthetics being much more acceptable - in part due to Queen
Victoria making use of chloroform. This growing acceptance of Anaesthetics paved the way to many
further improvements in the use of painkillers during operations.
Blackwell 1850's First woman to qualify as a doctor in the United States.…read more
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Seebohm Rowntree 1901 Wrote a report called `A Study of Town Life', worked out 1 in 10 families
couldn't make ends meet even if they never wasted a penny nor had a day off work.
Lloyd George 1906-1914 Leader of the liberal party, he introduced the national insurance scheme.
Also brought in many useful social reforms.
Alexander Fleming 1928 Discovered the mould penicillium, which would be later developed as an
important antibiotic.…read more