History (OCR) - Medicine Through Time Individuals (Revision Notes)

Here are the key individuals you need to know for OCR Medicine Through Time GCSE.

I have made borders around them so that they are easy to cut out and act like little revision prompts.

Good luck!

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Medicine through time individuals!

Hippocrates: (Greek Period)
Hippocrates improved medicine by doing the following:

· Observing and recording his patients' symptoms carefully. This allowed him to select the
right cure. His records helped him to treat future patients better too.
· Four Humours Theory: Hippocrates used this theory and said…

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Vesalius: (Renaissance Period)
He wrote Fabric of the Human Body. This was a detailed map of the human body.

· He uncovered Galen's mistakes about the heart & septum and the jaw bone. This opened
the way for others like Harvey to challenge Galen's ideas too.
· He showed people…

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Harvey: (Renaissance Period)
· He proved that the heart was a pump
· He showed blood moved around the body in a one way system (circulation)

Factors which helped him:

· Scientific experiment and dissection ­ he used this to measure & calculate the amount of
blood in the body…

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Nightingale: (19th Century)
· Before Nightingale's work, nurses had a poor reputation. They were seen as untrained
drunks. Hospitals were dirty and patients often died from infection.

· Nightingale's work in the Crimean War: Nightingale cut the death rate of British soldiers in
military hospitals in Turkey by improving hygiene,…

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Pasteur: (19th Century)
· 1861 Germ theory ­ discovered germs and proved they cause animal diseases
· 1879 Discovery of how vaccination works ­ while working on chicken cholera germs,
Pasteur discovered how to make a new vaccination for chicken cholera. He realised that
vaccines could be made by using…

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Simpson: (19th Century)
· In 1847 Simpson discovered chloroform. This was an effective anaesthetic with fewer side

Factors which helped him:

· Individual brilliance ­ Simpson experimented with many chemicals before finding
chloroform worked best. He wrote articles about his discovery which spread his idea to
other surgeons.

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Lister: (19th Century)
Lister read Pasteur's work on germs and wanted to stop germs causing infection during surgery. He
sprayed carbolic acid across the operating theatre during surgery as an antiseptic to kill germs
during surgery.

Factors which helped Lister:

· Individual brilliance ­ Lister's idea to spray carbolic acid…


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