History B AQA GCSE Unit 3

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Woodrow Wilson was president
He was a Democrat
Hated the idea of war
So America was in isolationism
In 1914, America was neutral
Did not join the war until 1917 in defence of its own shipping
Did not join the Western Front until 1918
100,000 Americans were killed
Media glamorised time at war and praised soldiers
League of Nations
Woodrow Wilson wanted America to play a main part in Europe
Americans wanted to end all entanglements in Europe
Republicans strongly against Wilson's idea
Wilson went on a speaking tour to promote his ideas, and suffered from a stroke and became
Republicans were now winning
March 1920, not enough votes for the Senate to formally ratify the League
1920- Presidential elections
Warren Harding (republican) won with 61 per cent of the votes, highest majority seen in America at
the time
He promoted normalcy, so therefore America resumed isolationism
Not until August 1921 did America officially declare war with Germany over
Victorious countries in Europe resented how late America came to help them in WW1
So the relationship was bad until USA started to sell armaments and food to France and Britain
By the end of the war the USA had captured most European markets
Tariff Policy ­ Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
Wilson's policy of free trade ended in 1922
When Fordney-McCumber placed high tariffs on all foreign-made goods
This made American-made goods cheaper
This helped American Industry
The President had the power to change these tariffs as necessary as he had the support of the
However foreign countries retaliated and placed high tariffs on all American-made goods
Mass Production
Henry Ford founded the Ford motor industry in 1903
Made first Model T in 1909
By 1914, he had a moving assembly line, this meant quicker production in the 1920s over 100,000
Model Ts were made
Motor industry provided 4 million jobs
Industrial production also increased, canned fruit and veg, telephones doubled
By 1930, 10 large groups controlled 72 per cent of nation's electric power
Consumer Industries and Advertising
Used mass production to make more washing machines, typewriters, cookers, vacuum cleaners and
so on

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Advertising boom = billboards and more radios
Chain stores opened such as Woolworths
End of 1920s, 200 corporations controlled 20 per cent of the Nation's wealth
Hire Purchase
People paid a deposit and paid the rest in instalments
Easy to borrow money from banks with low interest rates
Led to a boom in sales
Led to demand in Factories
More jobs = higher wages
Higher wages meant that people could pay back what they owned
Share Purchase- Stock Market boom
Companies could sell shares on…read more

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Immigration Controls ­ Black Americans
Blacks gained freedom from slavery in the 1860s
In 1896, the Jim Crow laws were legally approved by the US Supreme Court
This allowed people to treat blacks as inferior people
1920s, 1 million people left the South to go to the North, where the living conditions were better,
however there was still racism
Klu Klux Klan
Formed in 1866, after the American Civil War
Disbanded and reformed in 1915, then opposed to Catholics, Jews and Foreigners too
1920-25, had…read more

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Hoover promised this would continue and promised `a chicken in every pot' and said the USA was
close to having no poverty
In six months the situation was completely different
June 1929, overproduction made industries cut back
September, some investors began to worry about prices and foreseen the crash
So therefore started selling their shares
But late September the stock market recovered
Banks helped restore stability by buying vast numbers of shares
Share Prices Plummeted
Late October panic set
24th October (Black Thursday) 13 million…read more


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