History AS Level USA

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Recap Timeline
1919: Congress refuses to join league.
1920: Republican Warren Harding elected as President.
1928: Herbert Hoover - new President.
1929: Wall Street Crash
1930: Franklin Roosevelt elected.
1939: WW2 begins in Europe.
1941: America joins the War.
5 reasons for the boom:
Industrial Strength
World War 1
Republican points
New Industries/Methods
State of Mind
Industrial Strength
USA was a vast country, rich in natural resources and a growing population.
It didn't need to import many raw materials and it didn't need to export all its goods.
The home market was large and growing.
By WW1, America led the world in most areas of industry.
It had massive cal, steel and textile industries - leading oil producer.
It developed cars, telephones and lighting.
American agriculture had been the most effective and productive in the world.
It became so successful that farmers had become able to produce more than they could sell.
World War 1
America tried to stay out of 1st World War but they lent money to the Allies for the war.
They sold massive amounts of food, which gave this 'one -way' trade, America a massive boost.
The Americas joined in 1917; fortunately, they were not in the war long enough for it to drain
resources the way it did in Europe.
Republican Points
Republicans believed the government should interfere with the citizens everyday life as little as
possible = 'Laissez - Faire'
After Wilson, Harding promised to keep a 'normday' of USA and keep European matters separately.
Set up tariffs which made it expensive to import foreign goods in the USA.
Republicans kept taxations as low as possible, this bought benefits to the middle class but even
more to the wealthy.
Harding died in 1923 but his successor was republican.
New Industries/Methods

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These new methods bough an enormous boom in consumer goods - telephones, radios, vacuum
cleaners.
Big industries used sophisticated sales and marketing techniques to get people to buy their
goods.
Mass nationwide advertising.
By now - pay later schemes.
In 1929, 4.8 million cars were made.…read more

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During the 1920's, movies became multi-billion dollar businesses. Estimated 100 million tickets
were sold each week.
The Experience of black people
Blacks could not vote, denied access to good jobs.
Some whites set up an organisation called the Klu Klux Klan which used violence to intimidate the
blacks.
The KKK became a powerful political force.
Blacks throughout the south suffered fierce racism.
Throughout the 1920's, the Black population of cities in North America (Chicago, New York)
doubled as blacks were migrating.…read more

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Weakness in the US Economy: Overproduction where Americans made more than they could sell.
Europe could not afford American goods after tariffs.
The consequence of the Wall Street Crash
The rich lost the most because they invested the most.
Many borrowed money in order to buy shares which were now worthless.
Some badly lost out on speculating so they went bankrupt.
President Hoover assured America, 'prosperity was around the corner'.…read more

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The Second New Deal
Measures during the 100 days had an immediate effect.
It restored confidence in the Government.
Due to urgency, Roosevelt got his measures through Congress quickly.
He called the living and working conditions, the 'forgotten men'
Opposition to the New Deal
His Republican opposition criticised the cost of the New Deal which had to be paid by the tax
payers.
Business leaders disapproved of Roosevelt's support for trade unions.
Judges of Supreme Court - biggest opportunities.…read more

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