help understand the basics of the nephron

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What is the Nephron?
Each of the functional units in the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus and its associated
tubule, through which the glomerular filtrate passes before emerging as urine.
Each nephron starts in the cortex. In the cortex the capillaries form knots called the
glomerulus. This is surrounded by a cup shaped structure called the Bowman's capsule.
Fluid from the blood is pushed into the
Bowman's capsule by the process of
Key words:
glomerulus: is a fine network of capillaries
that increases the local blood pressure to
squeeze fluid out of the blood. It is
surrounded by a funnel shaped capsule
which collects the fluid and leads into the
Bowmans capsule: A capsule-shaped
membranous structure surrounding the glomerulus of each nephron in the kidneys of
mammals that extracts wastes, excess salts, and water from the blood
capsule leads into the nephron which is divided into 4 parts:
proximal convoluted tubule: is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney
which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.
Loop of henle: The part of a kidney tubule that forms a long loop in the medulla of the kidney,
from which water and salts are reabsorbed into the blood
Distal convoluted tubule: is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the
collecting duct system.
Collecting duct: series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter

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Step 1. Blood flows into the glomerulus from the renal artery
Step 2. High blood pressure in the glomerulus forces water, glucose, urea and salts through
the capillary wall and into the tubule. Protein molecules and blood cells are too big so they
remain in the blood.
Step 3. Blood leaves the glomerulus and flows to the capillaries that surround the renal tubule.
Step 4. The fluid called the glomerular filtrate passes along the tubule.
Step 5.…read more


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