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Hole In The Heart
· A hole in the heart is a gap in the wall
separating either the two ventricles or the two
atria.
· It allows blood to move directly from one side
of the heart to the other, mixing the
deoxygenated and oxygenated blood. This
reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood
being pumped around the body.
· A hole in the heart can sometimes be
corrected by surgery.…read more

Slide 3

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Hole In The Heart- Why Babies Can
Have One.
· Unborn babies do not need a double
circulatory system.
· They get oxygen from their mother via the
placenta, so their blood does not need to
travel to the lungs. As a result, all unborn
babies have a hole in the heart which
allows the blood to bypass the lungs.…read more

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Consequences of Damaged or
Weak Valves
· The valves in the heart can be damaged
or weakened by heart attacks, infection or
old age.
· The damages may cause the valve to not
open properly, causing high blood
pressure. It may even allow blood to flow
in both directions. This means the blood
will flow backwards and the blood will not
circulate as effectively as normal.…read more

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Consequences of A Blocked
Coronary Artery
· Coronary heart disease is when the coronary
arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle
get blocked by fatty deposits.
· This reduces blood flow to the heart muscle
and can often result in a heart attack.
· It can be treated by a coronary bypass
operation, where a piece of blood vessel is
taken from another part of the body and
inserted to bypass the blockage.…read more

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Heart Pacemaker or Artificial Heart
Valves vs. Heart Transplant
· The main advantage of using artificial parts
(valves/pacemakers) is that rejection is not
normally a problem. They are usually made from
metals or plastics, which the body cannot
recognise as foreign in the same way it does with
the living tissue.
· Replacing a valve is a much less drastic
procedure than a transplant and normally only
involves an overnight stay in hospital.
· However, the main disadvantage is that the new
valves/ pacemakers might not last that long and
need replacing as a result.…read more

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