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Structure of heart…read more

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Adaptations
Left ventricle = thicker to pump blood all round
body
Right ventricle = thinner to pump blood to lung
AV valves stop back flow of blood into atria
SL valves stop back flow of blood into ventricles
Valves only open one way depending on pressure…read more

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Cardiac Muscle Control
Heart is myogenic
SAN is the pacemaker ­ in right atrium and sends out
waves of electrical activity causing atrium to contract
Waves transferred to AVN ­ slight delay whilst ventricles
contract after atria is empty and pass waves on to bundle of
His
Bundle of His conduct waves to Purkyne fibres
causing ventricles to contract simultaneously from
bottom up…read more

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Cardiac Muscle Control Graph…read more

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Cardiac Output
Cardiac Output = stroke volume x heart rate
volume of blood Number of
pumped during heartbeats per
each heart beat minute
(Cm3)…read more

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