Healthy Living Summary - Chapter 1 - A2 Psychology

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Healthy Living Summary
1 Theories of Health Belief
1.1 Health Belief Model
Developed by Becker and Rosenstock in 1970: why or why not people went for a TB screening was
determined by the perceived threat
HBM is a cognitive model indicating the likelihood of an individual adopting a behaviour
A person will adopt a health behaviour:
1. When considering perceived threat to health: will it kill me? (perceived seriousness) & am I
likely to get it? (perceived susceptibility)
2. Costbenefit analysis influences
3. Depending on demographic variables­ age, income, sex, occupation etc.
4. Depending on internal/external cues ­ adverts/posters or periods of ill health
Becker et al. (1978)
o Aim: using HMB to explain mothers adherence to a drug regimen for their asthmatic children
o Method: correlational between beliefs reported in interviews and compliance with
selfreported administration of medication. Some participants validity tested using a blood test
to measure amount of medication
o Participants: 111 mothers aged 1754 and their children 9 months17 years
o Procedure: each mother interviewed for 45 mins, asked questions about their perception or
their child's susceptibility to illness and asthma, how serious asthma is, how much asthmas
interfered with child's education, their faith in doctors and effectiveness of medication
o Findings: positive correlation between mother's belief about susceptibility and compliance
with a medical regime. Positive correlation between mother's perception of seriousness of
child's asthma and administering medication prescribed. Costs negatively correlated with
compliance disruption of daily activities, child's complaints and inaccessibility of chemists. 2
demographic variables married mothers more likely to comply & greater mothers education
more likely to comply
o Conclusion: HBM useful model to predict different levels of compliance with medical
1.2 Locus of Control
Developed by Rotter ­ it's reductionist and pessimistic
Internal locus of control ­ person will control health by themselves
External locus of control ­ see their health in someone else's hands e.g a doctor
Rotter (1966)
o Method: review article
o Sample: initially 6 pieces of research into individual perceptions of ability to control outcomes
based on reinforcement
o Findings: results from the studies reviewed showed that when participants felt they had
control, they were more able to cope with potential threats, than participants who thought
`fate' determined effect of their behaviours
o Conclusions: locus of control affects many behaviours
1.3 Selfefficacy
Developed by Bandura
How effective a person thinks they will be at successfully adopting a health behaviour
Outcome expectancy ­ a person can predict the likely outcome to any situation based on past

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Efficacy expectations ­ a person's belief they can successfully do what is required to achieve the
outcome.…read more

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Aim: to review the impact of passing of a law requiring children to wear cycle helmets in
Maryland USA
o Method: natural experiment using independent measures
o Participants: children from 47 schools in Howard County and 2 control groups one from
Montgomery County and one from Baltimore County. Ages 910, 1213 and 1415. Total of
7322 children sent questionnaires.
o Procedure: sent questionnaires containing 4 point Likert scales sent covering multiple topics
concerning helmet usage. Parents consented.…read more

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Usually use therapeutic outcomes ­ i.e. if someone is ill and given medication then they get better,
you can assume that they took the medication
Lustman et al. (2000)
o Aim: to assess the efficacy of the antidepressant Fluoxetine in treating depression by
measuring glycaemic control (treatment for depression in diabetes)
o Method: randomised controlled double blind study (neither participants or researchers know
who belongs to control or experimental group)
o Participants: 60 patients with diabetes and depression
o Procedure: 2 groups placebo and Fluoxetine.…read more


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