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Emergent Approach
This healthcare system is present in India, South Africa and Pakistan.
The government's role is minimal, professional associations are powerful and
a physician operates as a solo entrepreneur, payments are made to them for
healthcare. There is private ownership of facilities and there's always
improvement in training of local healthcare workers.
Advantages of this system is that private healthcare has no waiting lists,
better quality healthcare and it's strong in urban areas. A disadvantage is
that government spending is low (<2% GDP) but there's help from the world
bank. Poor healthcare still exists in rural areas and there are less doctors for
the population.…read more

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Social Security
This system is seen in France, Japan, and Spain. Money is paid upfront for treatment
then reimbursed later. The WHO (World Health Organisation) judged this the most
effective healthcare approach in the world. Healthcare is insured and guaranteed
consumer product. The physicians operate solo and are members of the professional
associations. There is both private and public ownership of facilities and payment for
services are indirect. The state's role is evident but indirect. Strengths in this
approach is a shorter waiting list, so people can see a doctor straightaway due to
payment. The treatment is superior and lower in demand. Weaknesses are that the
costs are increasing rapidly with an ageing population. Some people can't afford to
pay upfront, so take out loans, causing debt and no access to treatment.…read more

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NHS ­ UK and Canada
This is a state supported service where physicians also operate
solo and are members of professional associations. Facilities are
publicly owned and the state's role is central and direct. Strengths
are that everybody has access to this service and it's free for all
social classes apart from prescription charges, optical/dental
services. However, there is a longer waiting list as people may go
to the doctors for every little problem, some may not need urgent
treatment or any at all, but have pay taxes for other people.
Priorities of the UK's National Health Service, are to improve the
quality of service and minimise errors. They also promise to
support and value their staff, public funds are devoted to NHS
patients. Respecting the confidentiality of patients and provide
access to information about their services, treatment and
performance are main priorities.
Primary care trusts (PCT), these are NHS walk-in centres and
they provide a direct-telephone service. They work with local
authorities and other agencies to provide health and social care to
make sure community's needs are being met.…read more

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Socialised ­ Cuba and China
Controlled entirely by the government and they provide public services where
physicians are state-employed where as professional associations are weak or non-
existent. Facilities are publicly owned and payments are entirely indirect. Strengths
are that many doctors are exported to other countries due to the 21 medical schools
that provide free training. Known as an effective system but it isn't without it's
weaknesses as they may not have trade unions to support employees who are
treated unfairly.
In Cuba, from the time of the socialist revolution in 1959 it has develop a health-care
system that provides excellent services for everyone. Fidel Castro made the
achievement of developed country health indicators a national priority. Therefore they
had to tackle the linked issues of sanitation, nutrition, medical services, education,
housing, employment, equitable distribution of resources and economic growth. In the
past 35 years Cuba has tripled their number of healthcare workers and went from one
doctor for every 1393 people in 1970 to one doctor for every 159 people in 2005.
Having accomplished this in urban and rural areas they are now exporting this model
through its medical diplomacy initiatives.
There was also a simultaneous development of high-tech medicine and
biotechnology. However they did suffer a post-apartheid brain drain because South
Africa began importing doctors from Cuba in 1996, 400 doctors were located in South
African townships and rural areas. Today Cuba has 130,000 health-care
professionals with a university education, 25,845 of whom are volunteers serving in
international missions in 68 different countries.…read more

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Pluralist - USA
Each consumer pays for outpatient treatment, doctor's fees/appliances.
Physicians operate solo and there is private and public ownership of
facilities. The state's role is minimal and indirect. People have insurance to
cover some of their healthcare costs. Professional associations are
powerful. An advantage is that there are additional healthcare services for
the poor and elderly, Medicare and Medicaid. But, about 44 million
inhabitants are without insurance.…read more

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