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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography



Volcanoes

Key locations





Volcanoes occur most frequently at plate boundaries.
Some volcanoes, however, like those that form the Hawaiian Islands, occur in the interior of plates at areas
called hot spots.

Volcanoes occur at the area known as the subduction zone. This is where one…

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography




Most volcanoes provide various types of warnings before eruptions begin
Such as:
Anomalous heat flow or changes in the temperature and chemistry of the ground and spring waters.
People living near volcanoes may detect premonitory events before an eruption. Both the frequency of
occurrence and…

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography




The sulphur dioxide released led to a decrease in world temperatures.

Mitigation? In the days leading up to the eruption people were evacuated resulting in less
deaths than there potentially could have been.

Page 4

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography



Earthquakes

Key Locations

Most earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates. Earthquakes usually occur
where two plates are running into each other or sliding past each other.

Earthquakes can happen along ANY TYPE of plate boundary (usually conservative).






How do they…

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography



The time of year and climate will influence survival rates and the rate at which disease can spread.

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography



Case Study: Kobe, Japan 1995 ­ MEDC

It occurred in a heavily populated urban area in Japan. It
measured 7.4 on the Richter scale.





Effects
5,000 killed
$100 billion damage
Buildings and bridges collapsed despite their earthquake proof design.
Buildings destroyed by fire when the…

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography



Tsunamis

What is a tsunami?

A tsunami is a huge wave, usually caused by volcanic or earthquake activity under the ocean, which can
eventually crash onto the shoreline. The effects on a community can be devastating.

When an earthquake, volcano or landslide happens on the…

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography




Page 9

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography



Hurricanes / Tropical Cyclones
(Known as typhoon in the Pacific Ocean)

Where do they occur?

Hurricanes are most common in the Pacific Ocean, as
they need warm water (27 degrees +) to form.






Hurricanes need four conditions to form:
Low air pressure
Warm temperatures
Moist…

Page 10

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Nicola Critten ­ AS Geography




Case Study: Katrina, USA, 2005

Hurricane Katrina tracked over the Gulf of Mexico.
Storm surges reached over 6 metres in height and
there were 127 mph winds.

New Orleans was one of the worst affected areas
because it lies below sea level and is protected…

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