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Hazards: - Estimated 10.20 people were killed by Mt. St. - 17 October 1989 was 6.5/7.5 on the Richter
Helen's. scale.
- cause
- definition Volcanic Lava Flow - 60 miles south of the city was the epicentre.
- landforms associated - Lava flow is the least hazardous of all - Aftershock was over the next 36hours.
- characteristics processes in volcanic activity. - 12,000 homeless, 2,600 businesses
- impacts ­ D.E.S ­ Local ­ Global destroyed, 40 buildings collapsed, $10 billion
- examples ­ Philippines, boxing day etc - A cold lava flow will not travel far and has a
high viscosity. of damage, 63 people killed mostly due to the
- climate changes, economic changes etc collapse of buildings or the 2-tier free way.
- Temperature, silica content, extrusion rate - Emergency services located near fault-line,
Landslides: and the relief are all characteristics which the not a good location because they were the
- Debris flow. The slope material saturated with speed and distance of a flow depends upon. nervous system for the emergency services to
water - Mafic lava contains 50% silica and is basaltic save lives.
- Slurry/rock. Damage to housing and roads. composition. - Monitoring.
- Earth flow. Quicker, may consist of a - Felsic lava contains 70% silica and is granitic
pyroclastic flow. - Triangular bracing.
in composition. - Oil-filled insulators within foundations.
- Debris avalanche. The flow of rocks, ice and - Intermediate lava is a mixture of the two.
debris which is saturated with water - Computer weights in roof.
- Demographic impact- indirect deaths - Constructive ­ explosive due to the build up of - Education.
- Transport links were destroyed/damaged, gases. - Evacuation plan in place.
causing problems with aid. - Plate boundaries and hotspots such as the
- Environmental impacts. Farms and land was Pacific Ring of Fire. Tsunamis:
destroyed. - Heimaey where Eldfell volcano erupted 21 - A series of ocean waves sending surges of
- Infrastructure destruction along with land. January 1973. Demographic impact was water, called a wave train.
- Homes destroyed or damaged. displacement. - Can cause wide-spread destruction when the
- Mt. St. Helens in 1980. - Building trenches to control lava flow waves crash ashore.
- Occurred before the eruption. direction. - Megatsunamis are 40-100m high.
- Triggered by an earthquake beneath the - Zoning.
- Evacuation. - Also known as Miami or Wave of
surface. Purification.
- The largest recorded landslide in history. - Emergency Response.
- Gain height as they approach land due to
- Housing washed away ­ social. - Establish ability to be self-sufficient. force of impact on meeting the continental
- Water in Spirit Lake was temporarily displaced - Economic protection. shelf.
­ Economic. - Monitoring, emergency plan in force. - Found in destructive plates where submarine
- Farms destroyed ­ Economic. - Spray cold sea-water on lava. volcanoes or landslides occur.
- Uncertain as to the number of deaths, direct - Trenches to divert lava flow from - At 500mp/h they can be as fast as a jet plane.
or indirect. towns/villages. - Caused by volcanic eruptions, earthquakes,
- 10-20 people are presumed to have died mass movements above/below water.
Earthquakes: - Waves can be 100km long and over an hour
directly in the flow.
- Mass migration from the surrounding areas. - Occurs with a sudden slip, releasing a large apart.
- Warning system was upgraded. amount of energy along faults and plate - Speed decrease as they reach shore to 30
- Barriers set up. boundaries due to the build up of friction. mp/h but still causes' destruction as the top,
- The Red Zone, no development allowed in a - Buildings can be damaged by shaking or which is still travelling at high speeds, crashes
particular area. subsidence. The surface waves [L Waves] over the slower bottom part.
- The earthquake knocked the northern face of makes the ground lurch. - Are much faster than the average human
the volcano, displacing material. - Damage to infrastructure. being can run.
- Unconsolidated material was displaced. - Boxing Day, 2004 in Aceh.
- Break-down of communities.
- West side of U.S.A the North American plate - Loss of escape routes and transport links. - India earthquake.
and the Pacific plate formed St. Helen's. - Communication break-down. - Aceh was the closet to the epicentre.
- 150mp/h for up to 23 miles. 0.67 cubic feet - Liquefaction. - Magnitude of 9.0, the largest since the Good
with a depth of 600foot. - San Francisco 1989. Friday Earthquake of Alaska [9.2].

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Destroyed the shore of Indonesia, Sri Lanka,
South India and Thailand.
- Affected many countries when the India
tectonic plate slid beneath its neighbour, the
Burma microplate, rising by 1m.
- 123,000 killed, £35m of damage, infection and
diseases such as meningitis and malaria.
- Early warning system such as the Pacific
Tsunami Warning System.
- Low lying coasts, isolation and poverty of
region and relief can affect the impacts of a
tsunami.…read more


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