Hazard management

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Global issues- earth hazards
Hazard management
Techniques to manage hazards
Prevention- sea walls, levees
Modification- earthquake proof buildings
Mitigation- reducing effects such as with floodplain zoning
Preparedness- make people aware of hazards such as with tsunami warnings
Respond/recover- deal with effects such as emergency services,
Economic offset measures- dealing with cost of hazards such as flood
insurance- allows people to recover economically
Hazard mitigation depends on:
Geographical scale of hazard
Magnitude of hazard
Onset/speed of hazard
Predictability of hazard
Variability/randomness of hazard
Human understanding
Economic impact of hazard- is it worth preventing
Made worse by human activity
Danger of hazard
Technology available (level of development)
Flood management
Direct- reduce magnitude of hazard, prevent hazard from happening. For
example: dams, levees, channelization
Indirect- predict when hazard takes place, prepare for onset of hazard.
For example: planning restoration, meteorological weather system tracking,
warning systems
Mass movement management
Direct- reduce/control, prevent.
Indirect- predict, prepare
Rock bolts- steel rods drilled through different layers of rock on a slope,
pinning layers together and preventing slippage
GPS- monitor movements in a slope to predict any major movements
Piezometers- bore holes drilled below a slope into the water table. When a
movement occurs in a slope, this puts pressure in the water table raising
the level and showing if landslides will occur.

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Global issues- earth hazards
Volcano management
Prevent- magmatic degassing- drilling a hole into a magma chamber allowing
gas to escape slowly reducing the pressure and preventing an eruption.
Divert lava flow by building dams or explosions to create a place for the
lava to go.
Prepare- warning systems. Evacuation.
Predict- monitor radiation/gas levels. Seismometers. GPS. Gas monitors.
Thermal sensing.
Earthquake management
Prediction- very hard as each fault can be triggered in different ways, but
mapping faults can show where earthquakes are most likely to occur.…read more


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