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Structure & Formula
C(3032) H(4816) O(872) S(8) Fe(4)
A Tetramer ­ Comprising of 2 Alpha chains, and 2 Beta chains, which make up
its secondary structure (Alpha Helices).
Attached to each chain is a Iron containing molecule known as a Haem group.…read more

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Uses & Functions
Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitric
oxide.
When saturated with oxygen:
Oxyhaemoglobin
When saturated with CO2:
Carboxyhaemoglobin…read more

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Structure of Haem
The Haem group consists of a heterocyclic ring- i.e. a cyclic compound with at least two different elements as
members of the ring, this is known as `Porphyrin'.
The Porphyrin group consists of four pyrrole molecules cyclically linked together. They can be seen in the four
corners of the diagram.…read more

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Interactions and Mechanisms
Hb binds with oxygen four times, with each binding, a slight change in
affinity occurs.
Hb + O2 Hb ­ O2
Hb--O2 + O2 Hb-(O2 )2
Hb-(O2 )2 + O2 Hb-(O2 )3
Hb-(O2 )3 + O2 Hb-(O2 )4…read more

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Isomerism
Haemoglobin A - The most common with a normal amount over 95%
Haemoglobin F - Fetal
Haemoglobin C&E - Cause variant forms of haemolytic anemia.
Haemoglobin S - variant form of haemoglobin found in people with
sickle cell disease.…read more

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