Haber Process

Flow chart showing the stages of the Haber Process for making Ammonia in industry, and the uses of the products

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Cracking of hydrocarbons Methane reacted with steam
C2H6 --> C2H4 + H2 OR CH4(g) + 2H2O(g) --> CO2(g) + 4H2(g)
Hydrogen burned
Hydrogen Nitrogen in air to leave
Passed over beds of iron catalyst at 450C and 200atm
pressure, as high pressure favours side with fewer
molecules and 450C is a compromise to obtain a high
N2 + 3H2 <--> 2NH3
Forward reaction is exothermic
Reaction mix is then cooled to remove ammonia as a
liquid, and the unreacted gases are recycled. improving
overall yield
Ammonia used in fertilisers
as N needed for protein
Ammonium Nitrate NH4NO3 made Ammonium Sulphate (NH4)2SO4
by neutralising ammonia solution made by neutralising ammonia
with nitric acid solution with sulfuric acid
Other fertilisers are KNO3 - K helps protect plants against
disease, which occurs naturally and (NH4)PO4 - P helps
roots to grow and helps crops ripen, which is made by
neutralising phosphoric acid with ammonia solution


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