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Science Notes

Biology B5

DNA ­ Making proteins


A DNA molecule has two strands spiralled together(double helix)
Each strand of DNA is made up of small units of Nucleotides
Nucleotides are made up of small molecules which are called a base.
It has four different bases A T G…

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The DNA forms X-Shaped chromosomes , both arms of the chromosome left and right
are the exact duplicate of another
The chromosomes are then lined up at the centre of the cell and cell fibres pull them
apart. The left and right arm go to the opposite ends of the…

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The way stem cells become specialised is called differentiation. After the 8th cell stage the
stem cells in the embryo start to differentiate. The embryo then begins to produce organs (
A group of tissue) and tissues ( group of specialised cells).
Stem cells in adults can only be found…

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These tissues can then form together to form organs like the leaves , roots , stem and the

Clones Of Plant

A cutting from the plant is taken
The cutting will contain unspecialised cells which can differentiate to make any cell
From the cutting a whole identical parent plant…


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