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Explanations of group display
· Social transitions and the · Boyd and Richerson: support
need for conformity the idea of power of social
conformity in group displays
· Of the 4742 lynchings of behaviour.
3/4 of the victims were · They found that groups
where co-operation thrived
black. were also those that
· Lynch mobs were more flourished.
active at a time of major · This provides an explanation
of why, when a majority
social transition eg, end group is at risk of social
to slavery change individual self
interest gives way to group
· If the community feels at behaviour.
risk it will motivate most
of them to act in such a
way…read more

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The power-threat hypothesis
· The myth of Negroes
desire to rape white
women were used as a
defence
· Blalock's power-threat
hypothesis states that
groups that pose a threat
to the majority are more
likely to be discriminated
against.
· It was motivated by
perceived racial threat.…read more

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Religious rituals
· Not all aggressive · Sosis and Bressler
behaviour is aimed at support the claim that
others. the costs of religious
· For example, among commitment help
Shiite Muslims, self- towards the longevity
flagellation is still of religious groups.
practised as a way of · The number of costly
celebrating the holy requirements was
day of Ashura. positively correlated
with the lifespan of
the group.…read more

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Costly signalling theory
· By engaging in religious · The costs surrounding
painful rituals an religious rituals should
individual signals be related to the
commitment to a group incentives of
and what it stands for. membership.
· Outsiders understand · in a study of the
you cant have the Indonesian financial
benefits without the crisis of the 1990's
costs. Chen observes that in a
· In our evolutionary past time of crisis, religious
being a member of a institutions provide
group improves survival social insurance,
chances. minimising risk by
collectively supporting
the most needy.…read more

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Sports events and xenophobia
· Macdonald suggested · Zimbardo's prison
that from a evolutionary experiment is an example
perspective, it is adaptive of exaggerated negative
to exaggerate negative stereotypes as prisoners
stereotypes about were perceived as a
outsiders, as the direct threat to the prison
overprotection of threat is guards position of
less costly than its under authority.
perception. · Foldesi provides evidence
from Hungarian football
crowds that show how a
core of extremist
supporters easily
increase spectators
violence in general.…read more

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