Group 2, The Alkali Earth Metals

This is not mine, it is from this lovely website here:
http://www.a-levelchemistry.co.uk

They are from the AQA section but are useful to anyone that does group 2 in their A-level

 These notes go into more detail than is necessary, and I am hoping to upload condensed versions soon :)

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  • Created by: Megan1808
  • Created on: 31-05-13 19:01

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Topic 2.6

GROUP 2, THE ALKALINE EARTH METALS

Trends in size, first ionization energy and electronegativity
Trends in reaction with water
Trends in solubility of group 2 sulphates and hydroxides























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PROPERTIES OF GROUP II ELEMENTS

The elements of group II are known as the alkali earth metals.

All of these elements are reactive metals. Magnesium and calcium are abundant in the earth's
crust. The others are relatively rare.

Group II elements have the outer shell configuration ns2.

1. Properties of…

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In fact, there are discrepancies between magnesium and calcium and between strontium and
barium. This is due to the change in crystal structure, which affects the distance between the ions
and thus the strength of the metallic bonding. Be and Mg have hcp structures, Ca and Sr have
fcc structures…

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3. Reaction of group II elements with water

Metals react with water to form metal hydroxides and hydrogen.
e.g. Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca2+(aq) + 2OH(aq) + H2(g)

The vigour of these reactions depends on two factors:
how easily two electrons can be removed from an atom
how soluble the hydroxides…

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SOLUBILITY OF COMPOUNDS OF GROUP II ELEMENTS

The compounds formed by the elements of group II are predominantly ionic.
The solubility of ionic compounds depends on the balance between the attraction of the
oppositely charged ions to each other and the attraction of the separate ions to water.

If the…

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ii) trend in solubility of hydroxides

The solubility of the group II hydroxides increases on descending the group.

Mg(OH)2 is insoluble, Ca(OH)2 is sparingly soluble and Sr(OH)2 and Ba(OH)2 are
soluble.

If dilute sodium hydroxide is added to a solution of Mg2+ ions, a white precipitate will be
formed immediately:…

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