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The periodic table- Group 2
First ionisation energy
- Decreases down group
- Outermost electron becomes further from nucleus
- More shielding by extra electron shells cancels out the increased nuclear charge
- Radiums 1st ionisation energy is a bit higher than the one before it as the shielding effect…

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Hydroxides and sulfates
- Solubility of hydroxides increases down group (think- its the opposite of the sulfates and BaSO4 is
- Solubility of sulfates decreases down group (solubility can be calculated by titrating a saturated
solution to find the number of moles in the water)
- To investigate: dissolve…

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The periodic table- Group 7
Normal In water In organic solvent

Chlorine Green gas Pale green

Bromine Orange-brown liquid Yellow-orange

Iodine Purple solid Pale brown Pink-purple

Oxidation reactions with metals
- Iodine anion is so polarisable that compounds with small or highly charged cations are very covalent
- Reactions…

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With water
- Hydrogen halides (colourless gas steamy fumes in moist air): HCl + HO Cl-(aq) + H3O+(aq)
(oxonium ion)- ionise completely in water to form strong acids
- Halogens: HO + Cl2 HClO (chloric acid) + HCl (bromine reacts to less extent, iodine is insoluble
in water so hardly…


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