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Individual Differences…read more

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Features of addiction
Salience:- the activity become the most important thing
in their lives- they crave it
Mood modification:- they become aroused when
engaging in the activity
Tolerance:- they need to keep increasing the activity in
order to achieve the same level of enjoyment
Withdrawal symptoms:- if they stop the activity, they
feel physical and psychological discomfort
Conflict:- the activity conflicts with the rest of the
person's life
Relapse:- even if the person gives up the activity, it is
very likely they will relapse…read more

Slide 3

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Cognitive Biases
Gamblers Fallacy: the tendency to think that future
probabilities are altered by past events, when in reality they
are unchanged
Fundamental attribution error: the tendency for people to
over-emphasize personality-based explanations for
behaviours observed in others while under-emphasizing the
role and power of situational influences on the same
Actor-observer effect: the tendency for explanations of
other individuals' behaviours to overemphasize the influence
of their personality and underemphasize the influence of
their situation and for explanations of one's own behaviours
to do the opposite
Self-serving biases: the tendency to claim more
responsibility for successes than failures. It may also
manifest itself as a tendency for people to evaluate
ambiguous information in a way beneficial to their interests…read more

Slide 4

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Background- Why do people
become problem gamblers?
Normative Decision Theory: How decisions should be
made in a rational world, has been used to try and
understand why people gamble. However it's
assumption that decision-making is a rational process
may be why it has not been successful in predicting the
decisions a gambler will make: gambler's decisions are
not always rational ones.
Heuristics and Biases: (Wagenaar 1988) suggested
that the best way to understand cognitive processes in
relation to gambling is through heuristics (simple
efficient rules which have been proposed to explain
how people make decisions, come to judgements and
solve problems- can contain cognitive distortions) The
suggestions is not that gamblers use heuristics more
than non-gamblers but that they `select heuristics at the
wrong time'.…read more

Slide 5

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Cognitive distortions
Availability Bias:
Availability Bias: When
When someone uses
someone uses available
available information
information or experience
Illusion of control: or experience to
to evaluate the probability
when gamblers have evaluate the
of the same thing
higher expectations of probability of the
happening again.
winning than is same thing
probable because there happening again.
is an illusion of being Hindsight bias:
able to control what is When people are
going on. not surprised at an
outcome and even
believe that they
predicted the
Illusory outcome.
Representative bias: A
Fixation on absolute correlations: The belief that random events
frequency: When superstitious belief have a pattern and that a
gamblers measure their that events got sample of results are
success by looking at the together even when representative of all
number of times they win they do not (rolling results (e.g. mistakenly
in a session, rather than the dice slowly= low believing that your winning
considering the relative number) your first few bets means
frequency of wins overall. you will be lucky for the
rest of the night)…read more

Slide 6

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Aims and hypotheses
1. To examine whether the skill involved in fruit machine gambling is actual
or perceived
2. To uncover the cognitive activities of fruit machine gamblers
3. To examine what gamblers think about their level of skill.
1. There would be no differences between the skill levels of regular and non-
regular fruit machine gamblers
2. Regular gamblers would produce more irrational verbalisations than non-
regular gamblers
3. Regular gamblers would report themselves as being more skills-oreientated
than non-regular gamblers
4. `Thinking Aloud' PPs would take longer to complete the task than `non-
thinking aloud' PPs.…read more

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