Greece - the Cuban missile crisis

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Greece, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Aid, COMINFORM, COMECON, The Berlin Wall 1961, Increase in competition and Cuban Missile Crisis. 

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In 1946 How did the USA respond? How did their actions increase rivalry?
1) Greece
It was agreed that Britain would have the influence upon Greece at the Yalta
However the Americans and British were afraid that Greece and Turkey would
come under communist influence.
In 1944, 2 rival groups in Greece (the monarchists and the
communists) both wanted to rule the country.
In 1945, Churchill sent troops to Greece, supposedly to help restore
order, but actually to make sure that the monarchists took power.
In 1946, the USSR protested to the UN that the British troops
threatened Greek peace.
The UN, didn't act and therefore the Communists tried to seize control
of Greece, therefore it turned into a civil war.
The British (who were bankrupt after WW2), said they would have to
withdraw, said they would have to withdraw but Truman paid for them
to remain to support the king.
By 1950, the monarchists were in control of Greece.
It marked a turning point in the USA foreign policy.
The USA became involved with Europe.
It increased tension.
The beginning of the Truman Doctrine.
The USA seemed superior as it would use its economic and military
strength to protect the world from communism ­ communism looked
2) The Truman Doctrine
Because of the events in Greece.
The USA had the atoms bomb and wanted to use this to prevent further Soviet
The USA did not want a spread in Communism.

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Truman's idea that the USA had a duty to prevent the spread of
Communism to Easter Europe / world. To do this he was prepared to
engage the USA in military action if necessary.
The policy was one of containment ­ ie. containing the spread of
Help of military aid to any country in need.
It was first displayed in Greece in March 1947.
A change in the USA foreign policy
o USA was taking part in European affairs.…read more

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COMINFORM ­ Founded 1947.
To extend Soviet political control.
The Soviet Union could coordinate communist parties in Europe.
A response to the Truman Doctrine.
The Communist Information Bureau.
Ran meetings and sent out instructions to Eastern European government.
Ensured that satellite states:
o Followed Soviet aims for foreign policies.
o Introduced economic policies such as collectivisation of agriculture.
Used to purge:
o Any members who disagreed with Moscow (eg Tito, left expulsion
of Yugoslavia from Cominform in 1948).…read more

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The Berlin Crisis / Wall 1961
1) Problems with East Germany
a. Long term tension between East and West Germany
i. Divided in 1945, airlift 1948 ­ 49. Two countries in 1949.
b. West Berlin
i. Symbol of Capitalist prosperity inside East Germany.
ii. East public could see positives of Capitalism.
iii. West Berlin and West Germany `economic miracle'.
c. The Brain drain
i. 1/6 of the population (4 million) of East Germany left for
ii.…read more

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Human cost ­ people killed if found trying to escape (eg. Conrad Shuman)
3) Kennedy reinforces his support freedom in West Berlin.
4) Kennedy visits West Berlin.
5) Kennedy didn't go to war even though many wanted him to.
6) The economic crisis in East Germany slowly evaporated.
7) The message of democracy was spread to West and East Berlin.
8) Tension increased short term
a. USA practised tearing down wall
b.…read more

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Effects of the arms race
Cause of tension and rivalry.
M.A.D 1961 ­ Mutually assured destruction ­ both sides are
capable of destroying each other ­ reduces risk of nuclear
Propaganda, spying, intelligence.
Location of missiles questioned ­ short range.
Economic strain.
Increase stakes; accident, poor decision, poor leader.
RANDOM FACT ­ Kennedy met Khrushchev at conference in Vienna.
The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
Why? Khrushchev put nuclear missiles in Cuba.
1958 ­ Cuba ruled by Batista (America's Playground).…read more

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A fleet of submarines
o 156 ICBM's
o Air forces on patrol
o Hundreds of thousands solider placed on combat alert.
22 October ­ Kennedy spoke on TV and informed Khrushchev that
soviet convoy approaching Cuba would be stopped.
24th October ­ 18 USSR ships turned back, Kennedy demanded removal
of missiles.
26th October - Khrushchev sent Kennedy a letter agreeing to remove the
missile if no blockade or invasion.
27th October - Khruschev sent tougher letter saying Turkey missiles
should also be removed.…read more


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