Grammar- Word Classes

This is just a basic but concise and easy to understand (I Hope!) Grammar guide. I drew this up using the 'Revision Express' English Language AS & A2 guide.


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Word Classes
Nouns, more commonly known as `naming words' and they are the names we give to places, people,
objects, feelings and ideas. There are
THREE different types of nouns:
PROPER NOUNS- refer to specific people and places, e.g. Adele Adkins, London
COMMON NOUNS- refer to less specific things such as types of people and feelings, and
can be placed into THREE different categories:
Concrete nouns- refer to things that exist physically and can be touched, e.g. book, dog, house
Abstract nouns- refer to feelings, ideas or qualities- happy, love, genuine
Collective nouns- refer to groups of people or objects- family, buses
These can then be SINGULAR or PLURAL.
Adjectives are `describing words' and are used to describe nouns.
They can also be used to make COMPARISONS- words such as bigger and fatter are comparative
adjectives, as is putting the adverb `MORE' in front of the adjective : `MORE expensive'
Another form is the SUPERLATIVE- words such as `fastest' `heaviest' `biggest' are examples of these too,
usually ending in `est'. Putting the adverb most in front of the adjective is also classed as a superlative:
`MOST expensive'
Verbs are often known as `doing words' and it is certainly true that many verbs refer to physical actions e.g.
Jump, take, give, explode, and throw.
However they can also refer to what could be called `mental actions' e.g. worry, anticipate, think.
The MAIN VERB in a clause or sentence is a single verb that expresses the MAIN MEANING.
The AUXILARY VERBS in a sentence are those placed INFRONT OF MAIN VERBS.

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Auxiliaries can also be used as the main verb, e.g.
* `She IS beautiful'
* `I HAVE a funny nose'
* `She DID it'
MODAL AUXILIARIES, however, can only be used in CONJUNCTION WITH THE MAIN VERB.…read more

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Adverbs are often characterised by the suffix `-ly' to the ends of
Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns, the objects of a sentence.…read more

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Determiners precede nouns and refer directly to them.…read more

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A phrase is one or more words functioning as a unit in a sentence, generally including a head word
and accompanying modifiers.
HEAD WORD- main word in a phrase
MODIFIERS- Words that describe a head word or give us more information about it. If they come
before the head word they are known as pre-modifiers. If they come after the headword they are
called post modifiers.…read more

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A clause usually contains both a verb phrase and other types of phrase.…read more

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