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Lesson 6.

Transnational Cooperations.

Transnational cooperations; a company that has operations in more than one country e.g. Nike.

They maximises profits.
Exploit LEDC's.
Boost economies.
Can move to any country if they register.
Build business through merges e.g. Guinness with Diageo.
Assembly industries relying on a chain of suppliers e.g.…

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Also has stores in Poland, Hungary, central Europe & Asia.
Has head offices in Hong Kong.
Exploring its horizons with intentions to develop in Malaysia.
They don't label their clothes with the country there made in.
Clothing range; brings insecurity for workers with worse conditions & low wages. In 2000…

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Escape destitution.
Makes a country wealthy.
50 years; has helped 3 billion people out of poverty.
Free market economy.
Helps politically.
Close communications.

E.g. Taiwan.

Was poorer than Africa.
Is now as rich as Spain.
Cit absolute poverty.
Wages 10 times higher than 40 years ago.
In 1950,…

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Externalities; The range of benefits & costs generated by economic activity that are not fully
accounted for in the price-&-market system of economics, & need to be accounted for separately.
Pollution is a prime example of a negative externality, while rising literacy is a positive externality.

Deindustrialisation; The decline of…

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"Trade across national boundaries without interference from respective governments".

The case of cotton; Case study Mali.

40% of rural households (2.5 million people) are dependent on cotton trade.
In 40 years, cotton value has halved due to inflation.
Subsidies to Europe & American farmers mean an unfair price.
Eliminating these…

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Grow own food.
Considering transport habits.
Limit influx of chain stores ­ helping to promote local business.
Funding for renewable energy.
Local services.
Promote green areas.
Policies & Laws to cut down carbon dioxide emissions.
Grants & subsidies.
UN climate change convention e.g. cop 16.

Fair Trade & Trade…

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Lesson 10.


How or why do populations change?

Birth rate; births per 1,000 people.
Related to birth control.
Death rate; deaths per 1,000 people.
Employment & female emancipation.
Wealth, health & life expectancy.
Development of settlements.

Population Inputs & Outputs.


Immigration ­ Industrialisation, famine &…

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Birth rate; The number of births per 1,000 people per year in a region (a measure of fertility,
although actual fertility rates are highly independent upon population structure, with youthful
populations having higher fertility than greying populations).

Death rate; The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year in a…


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