Going Global

Globalisation notes

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  • Created on: 19-05-10 12:37
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`Going Global'
Globalisation
Definition
Globalisation is defined as the processes by which people, their cultures, money, goods and
information can be transferred between countries with few or no barriers
Accelerating Factors
Transnational Corporations (TNCs)
Communication ­ internet, telephone
Media ­ radio, television
Transport ­ aeroplanes, container ships
International organisations ­ World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade
Organisation
Global Groupings
Economic Development Indicators
Gross National Product The value of all the goods and services earned
by a company including companies working
abroad (TNCs).
Gross Domestic Product The value of all the goods and services earned
by a country excluding foreign earnings.
Per Capita Statistics providing an average per person.
Purchasing Power Parity Relates average earnings to prices and what
they will actually buy.
Human Development Indicators
Physical Quality Of Life Index Made up of life expectancy, literacy rates and
infant mortality.
Human Development Index Made up of life expectancy, literacy rates, infant
mortality and school enrolment.
Human Suffering Index Made up of daily calorie intake, access to clean
water, inflation rate, access to communications,
political freedom and civil rights.
Economic Groupings
LDCs (Least Developed Countries classified by the UN Sudan, Ethiopia, Afghanistan
Countries) as having extremely low human
development and economic
development.
NICs (Newly Industrialised Countries undergoing China, India
Countries) industrialisation, often host
countries to TNCs because of
their cheap labour and natural
resources.

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OECD (Organisation for It is a global `think tank' for 30 Sweden, Spain, Australia
Economic Co-operation and of the world's wealthiest
Development) nations
OPEC (Organisation for Established to regulate the Libya, Iran, Nigeria
Petroleum Exporting global oil market. Stabilise
Countries) prices and ensure a fair return
for the 11 member states who
between them supply 40% of
the world's oil.…read more

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External tariffs been lowered for the flower High external tariffs and subsidies for EU wheat
industry, allowing Kenya to trade with the EU. farmers mean that Kenya cannot compete and
therefore trade with the EU in industries other
than the flower industry.
This causes the flower industry to flourish and Farmers grow flowers instead of wheat so that
causes the multiplier effect they can trade.…read more

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Cultural - Hybrid products ­ - Global products
exciting new products favoured over local
emerge as TNCs adapt ones ­ traditional
their products local clothes and floods may
tastes and fashions be abandoned as result
of the influence of TNCs
Environmental - Ecosystem damage ­
TNCs may have a poor
record of looking after
the environment (e.g.…read more

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Manufactured goods and services ­ the value of world trade is now $70 billion. The figure
rises by around 10% each year.
Information ­ the internet has brought real-time communications between distant places,
allowing services to be sold, while online communities have grown in size and influence.
People ­ of all flows, the movement of people still faces the greatest number of obstacles
because of border controls and immigration laws.…read more

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Cheap labour ­
minimum wage for
factory workers under
$1.…read more

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Economic 1) OPEC increased petrol Government has no
Debt prices, increasing their money to spend on
wealth healthcare and
2) OPEC banked their education ­ no
wealth in western vaccinations, medicine
banks or resources for
3) Banks used money to schools
give loans to Africa
4) Global interest doubled
5) Developing countries
unable to repay loans
6) IMF sets up SAPs (more
affordable
repayments) in return
for spending cuts
Roots
Analysing Population Change
Change Trend - Evidence Reasons
Family size 1901 ­ average Equal opportunities…read more

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Employment Movement from Primary and secondary
manufacturing, mining industries relocated to
and farming South East Asia ­ more
(primary/secondary economically
sector) to services, productive to import
finance and media goods
(tertiary/quaternary
sector)
Social status and aspirations Early 1900s ­ majority Average wage rose
of population was More people entered
relatively poor and higher education
classified as working before graduating to
class non-manual work
Today ­ increased
social mobility -
widening of middle
class
Ethnicity Today ­ minority Large scale migration
groups account for 8% as…read more

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Volunteer work
Childcare ­ women can go to work
Impacts of Polish-UK Migration
SOURCE COUNTRY HOST COUNTRY (UK)
(POLAND)
Benefits Costs Benefits Costs
ECONOMI Remittances Highly Migrants fill Migrants fill
C (money sent educated low paid jobs jobs that
back) ­ helping people that host then working
Polish moving away workers are class
economy (brain drain) ­ unable or tradesmen
Salaries not earning unwilling to fill cannot gain
increase to money for Allow rural Polish
encourage source country industries such workers
people back ­ negative…read more

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Pull Factors of Spain to Britons
Mediterranean climate - 10°C warmer
- Less rainfall
- Lower heating bills
- Healthier (less pollution)
Communications network - Cheap air fares
- Cheap international telephone rates
Lifestyle of Spanish people - Quieter and slower pace of life
- Lower crime rates
- Absence of youth culture
Cost of living - Lower tax rates
- Food and drink cheaper
- More disposable income
Property market - UK property market is expensive while
Spanish property market is cheaper ­
make…read more

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