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Genetic modification of plants

1. Cells of the crop plant to be modified are isolated

Cells of the unmodified crop plant.

2. Enzymes remove cell wall by digestion

Protoplasts of the crop plant.

3. Infection of protoplasts by bacterial vector

Bacteria with the desired genes.

4. Infection of protoplasts by…

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Gene gun.
6. Cells cultured allowing regrowth of cell walls. Antibiotics used to
screen out cells which are not GM

Crop plant cells, some of which are genetically modified.

7. Cultured on nutrient agar, GM crop cells grow into a clump of cells
called a callus

Callus made up of…


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