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Genetic modification of plants

1. Cells of the crop plant to be modified are isolated





Cells of the unmodified crop plant.

2. Enzymes remove cell wall by digestion





Protoplasts of the crop plant.

3. Infection of protoplasts by bacterial vector





Bacteria with the desired genes.

4. Infection of protoplasts by…

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Gene gun.
6. Cells cultured allowing regrowth of cell walls. Antibiotics used to
screen out cells which are not GM





Crop plant cells, some of which are genetically modified.

7. Cultured on nutrient agar, GM crop cells grow into a clump of cells
called a callus





Callus made up of…

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