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Brief Outline of the Stages of Respiration
o Glycolysis: splitting of sugar
o What? ­ The formation of pyruvic acid from glucose
o Where? ­ Cytoplasm of a cell
o The Krebs Cycle
o What? ­ The removal of hydrogen from pyruvic acid
o Where? ­ Matrix of the mitochondria
o Electron Transport Chain/Oxidative Phosphorylation
o What? ­ Using hydrogen to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
o Where? ­ Inner mitochondrial membrane…read more

Slide 3

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· Oxidation is:
­ The addition of oxygen
­ The removal of hydrogen
­ Or the loss of electrons
· Reduction is:
­ The addition of hydrogen
­ The removal of oxygen
­ Or the gain of electrons
· A lot of the reactions in the stages of respiration involve oxidation through
the removal of electrons or hydrogen atoms
· These are transferred to electron/hydrogen carriers
· Lastly they are chemically bonded with oxygen to form water in the very
last stage of respiration…read more

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· Glucose is phosphorylated twice (two phosphate (PO4) groups are added)
to make a 6C (carbon) sugar phosphate
· 2 ATP's are used to provide the phosphates
· This makes the glucose more reactive
· So, the 6C sugar phosphate breaks down into 2 3C sugar phosphates called
triose phosphates (TP)
· Hydrogen is removed from each of the 2 TP molecules
· The hydrogens are passed to 2 NAD (nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide)
· 2 ATP's are made directly from the conversion of each TP to pyruvic acid
as the phosphate groups are removed…read more

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Into and Out of Glycolysis
Into Glycolysis Out of Glycolysis
· 1 Glucose · 2 pyruvic acids
molecule (6C) (3C)
· 2 NAD molecules · 2 reduced NAD
· 2 ATP molecules molecules (2
· 4 ATP molecules…read more

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The Link Reaction
· The pyruvic acid (PA) molecules enter the
· CO and hydrogen are removed from each PA
to create two 2C molecules
· The hydrogen is transferred to NAD
· The 2C molecule is then combined with
coenzyme A (CoA) to form the 2C compound:
acetylCoA…read more

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