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Occurs in the
CYTOPLASM.
How it occurs
The glucose used may come directly from the blood or
it may be produced by the breakdown of glycogen
stores in muscle cells.
Two molecules of pyruvate are produced in each cycle
If there is plenty of oxygen, the pyruvate will enter the
mitochondria and be used in the aerobic reactions of
the Krebs cycle.…read more

Slide 3

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The glucose is used up to:
·Make it more reactive
·Trap it inside the cell Glucose (6C)
ATP ADP phosphorylation
Glucose phosphate (6C)
isomerisation ATP ADP
ATP is hydrolysed to
provide the energy
Fructose phosphate (6C)
needed to Dehydrogenase is the
ATP ADP
phosphorylate glucose. enzyme used to reduce
Hexose diphosphate (6C) NAD.
Triose phosphate (3C) Triose phosphate (3C)
2[H] taken up by NAD, 2[H] taken up by NAD,
forming reduced NAD forming reduced NAD
ADP ATP
ADP ATP
ADP ATP
ADP ATP
Pyruvate Pyruvate…read more

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How ATP is formed
The reduced NAD passes through the outer
mitochondrial membrane into the electron
carrier system. The energy from this system is
used to phosphorylate ADP. Three molecules
of ATP are formed.
When the 3C sugar is converted into pyruvate,
the phosphate group released is used to
convert ADP to ATP.…read more

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Controlling the rate of glycolysis
Each of the individual steps in Phosphofructokinase catalyses one of the
glycolysis is controlled by a early `pump-priming' reactions, adding a
specific enzyme, which is phosphate group to the 6C sugar. It is affected
sensitive to various substrates by the concentration of ATP. It is inhibited by
and products of the reaction. high levels of ATP and citrate.
When there is plenty of ATP glycolysis slows down
Lack of ATP glycolysis speeds up
Regulatory enzymes help to control the rate of
the entire biological pathway.…read more

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