glossary of key words for beliefs in society unit

just a list of key words and their definitions that are important for the unit 3 beliefs in society paper.

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  • Created on: 17-01-12 12:47
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Universalism A set of values used to judge individuals on a
meritocratic criteria
Fundamentalism The belief (usually religious) that the country
needs to return to traditional values and
practices. Normally associated with Islam.
Civil Religion Events or activities that involve ritualistic
patterns but generate the collective sentiments
usually associated with religious ceremonies
and occasions. E.g. support for a football
New Age A collective term used to describe a religion
or quasi religion that focuses on alternative
issues like medicine and environment.
Patriarchy Male dominance over females
Rationalisation A concept used by Weber to describe the
process whereby behaviour and beliefs based
on emotion and tradition are replaced by
rational- scientific behaviour and beliefs.
Totemism Used by Durkheim to describe the Australian
Aboriginals which he saw as the most simplest
and basic form of religion
Collective Worship When a social group comes together in
religious rituals and together they express
their faith in common values and beliefs
Primogeniture This is when the eldest son of a landowner
inherited all his father's land
Depersonalised This is the idea that wealth id concentrated in
the hands of organisations rather than the
hands of individuals.
Millenarian These are groups that expect Gods'
intervention to change the worlds. E.g. God
Save America
World accommodating new religious Are usually off-shoots of an existing major
movements church or denomination
Audience cult Are least organised and involve little face to
face interaction. Many of the members of such
cults may not know each other. E.g. astrology
is and example of an audience cult.
Client cult Are more organised and usually offer services
to their followers. For example they offer
medical miracles
Veiling Islamic women wearing the hijab or veil
Scientology Offers its clients the opportunity to clear
painful memories from the brain
World rejecting new religious movements They are a clearly religious organisation but
their ideology of the outside world is highly
World affirming new religious movements Different from other religious groups and
lack some of the features central to religion.
E.g. have no church. These groups claim to be
able to provide access to spiritual or
supernatural powers.

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Relative deprivation This refers to deprivation which is subjective
as it is about what people feel. People may
feel poorer compared to others.
Conversionist sect This is the sect that is most likely to develop
into a denomination. E.g. evangelical sects.
Multi-culturalism The promotion of cultural diversity which
may be expressed by acknowledging and
celebrating aspects of ethic minority culture.
Church The place of worship for Christians
Modernity Used to describe the modern world which
includes industrialisation and urbanisation.…read more

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Supernatural Something that can't be explained by normal
scientific laws. E.g. ghosts
Theodicy A theory that aims to prove the existence of an
all loving, all powerful and all knowing god
Privatisation The selling of state assets such as gas to private
Evangelical sect Typical of the USA which aim to convert as
many people as possible by the means of
Adventist sect They await the second coming of Christ who
will judge humanity and establish a new world
order. E.g.…read more

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Metaphysical stage where religious beliefs would be weakened
and where philosophy would become more
Positive stage Religious beliefs would disappear and science
alone would dominate human thinking and
direct human behaviour.…read more

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Neo-paganism is a group dissimilar of religions which
attempt to revive ancient, mainly European
pre-Christian religions.…read more


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