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Universalism A set of values used to judge individuals on a
meritocratic criteria
Fundamentalism The belief (usually religious) that the country
needs to return to traditional values and
practices. Normally associated with Islam.
Civil Religion Events or activities that involve ritualistic
patterns but generate the collective sentiments
usually associated with…

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Relative deprivation This refers to deprivation which is subjective
as it is about what people feel. People may
feel poorer compared to others.
Conversionist sect This is the sect that is most likely to develop
into a denomination. E.g. evangelical sects.
Multi-culturalism The promotion of cultural diversity which
may be…

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by a particular society that is essential to social
Supernatural Something that can't be explained by normal
scientific laws. E.g. ghosts
Theodicy A theory that aims to prove the existence of an
all loving, all powerful and all knowing god
Privatisation The selling of state assets such as gas…

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Metaphysical stage where religious beliefs would be weakened
and where philosophy would become more

Positive stage Religious beliefs would disappear and science
alone would dominate human thinking and
direct human behaviour.

Church membership the number of people that belong to a church
Caesaropapist a society where an absolute ruler…

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Neo-paganism is a group dissimilar of religions which
attempt to revive ancient, mainly European
pre-Christian religions.


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