breakdown of biology aqa as unit 1 (completion in progress)

it incluedes explanations (but mostly a breakdown of as aqa biology unit one)

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  • Created by: hellman
  • Created on: 03-01-14 19:24
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Unit 1 AQA
Microorganism A very small organism which can only be
seen with a microscope
Disease Is created by a set of symptoms specific to
each disease created by a pathogen.
Pathogen A microorganism, which causes a disease.
What must a pathogen be able to do They must gain entry in to a host
They must colonize the tissues of a
They must be able to resist the
defenses of the host
Cause damage to the host tissues
Infection An infection is when a tissue has been
Transmission. The spreading of disease from one
organism to another
Respiratory system These systems are most likely to be
Digestive system vulnerable to infection due to their
exchange surfaces.
Natural defenses which stop Mucus layer which covers
pathogens from entering the body exchange surface (difficult to penetrate)
The production of enzymes which
will break it down pathogens
Production of stomach acid which
kills pathogens
How do pathogens cause disease Damaging host tissues (viruses use
the cell to reproduce and kill the cell to be
Production of toxins means all
sorts of trouble can be cause e.g. cholera

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Lifestyle and health
Risk Risk is the probability that someone will
become ill or injured due to a given hazard.
Lifestyle Smoking
Physical activity
CHD controllable risk factors.…read more

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Large intestine
1. Hydrolysis This is when enzymes break down
2. Condensation a molecule to create water
This is when enzymes are used to
build up molecules.
What does each part do? Salivary glands/mouth
These glands produce amylase, which
breaks down starch into maltose. They are
found in the mouth (where the food is
chewed physical digestion).
This is a long muscular tube, which pushes
down food from the mouth to the
stomach.…read more

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Do not refer to it as the monomers
principle in the exam that is done to help
you understand.)
Monomers principle in carbohydrates. Monomers have a specific name when
their principle is applied to other types of
molecules. When using the principle for
carbohydrates the name is chained to
monosaccharide for one molecule,
disaccharide for two molecules and
polysaccharide for long chains.
Monosaccharide. Glucose is a well-known monosaccharide
its formula is C6H12O6.…read more

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The break down of starch. This diagram shows the break down
of polysaccharides into a
disaccharide and monosaccharide.
The process follows as a hydrolysis
reaction all the way through until
only glucose molecules remain. The
glucose molecules are then used in
respiration and used to make other
substances used in the body.
Lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance is caused when the
body cannot produce enough lactase
enzymes to break down the sugar lactose
hence the name lactose intolerance.…read more

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Structure of an amino acid.
And the formation of a peptide bond
with the production of water.
Primary structure of a protein. The amino acids link together in a reaction
called polymerization. The links are called
Secondary structure of a protein. The secondary structure is when the
polypeptide chains twist and turn over
each other to create an alpha helix or a
beta-pleated sheet.…read more

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Call it a complimentary
shape when describing.
Induced fit model This is the idea that a substrate has a
similar shape but it is not exact. The
substrate is forced into the active site and
a strain is put on it breaking the molecule.…read more

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First the cells must be
homogenate to break the membranes and
free the organelles
2. The homogenate is then filtered
to remove large bits of debris.
3. The filtered homogenate is put in
a centrifuge to remove any last bits of
membrane. The supernatant is poured off
and the sediment is binned.
4. Once that is done the supernatant
is spun at a g of 500 to take off the largest
organelle the nucleus.…read more

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Cytoplasm. Where most of the chemical reactions take A gel like substance
Cell Membrane Support, protection, Controls movement A thin membrane where substances
of materials in/out of cell, Barrier between pass through
cell and its environment
Lysosome. Breaks down larger food molecules into Small and round with a single
smaller molecules Digests old cell parts membrane
RER Produces and stores proteins send them A network of tubules and flattened
to other places.…read more

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water has a water potential of 0, after
that the more molecules dissolved into the
water the lower the number ie -600. Also
if there was a solution with a water
potential of -600 with a semi permeable
membrane separating it from a solution
with a water potential of -400 the net
movement will be from the -400 to -600.…read more



thankyou -helped a lot

Anisa -Team GR

I rate it 5 star its relly useful :)

Anisa -Team GR

I need to print this out and stick it in my room!

btw hellman try add more words to your glossary 


lol ok

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