First 408 words of the document:
Giddens takes "globalisation" to mean that modern forms of communication have made
physical distance and national borders far less important than barriers between social
groups. This means that what happens in one society can impact on others.
Corruption, dealing drugs, trafficking, and terrorism are examples of global crime which
has grown massively, for example the cost of transnational crime is 1 million pounds per
Taylor shows how the ability to move finance around the world with limited controls
permits money laundering, tax evasion, and insider trading. Cheap international
transport and communication permits less costly third world production (eh South East
Asia) and the repatriation of profit to the first world. Ruggierio suggests that the
subsequent decline in employment in industrial countries encourages small business to
operate illegally avoiding health and safety, and by employing illegal immigrants,
overcoming minimum wage regulation.
Box states that multinational dump products and plants on poorer countries which have
fewer legal controls or where officials can be bribed. Slapper argues that such crimes are
hidden behind an "ideological screen" because such crimes are less harmful to society
than street crime. He argues therefore that illegal and immoral practises are normal under
Globalisation has brought about an explosion in transnational organised crime with
groups making vast profits from illegal drug manufacture, distribution and sales. Human
trafficking is currently worth about £10 billion a year with over 5 million people moved
from one country to another.
Critical criminologists (Marxists) argue that the real criminals are the rich and powerful
who break the law where it conflicts with their own interests. They are also less likely to
be punished because they have the power to protect themselves by regulations and
difficulties in blame with large transnational companies.
Kramer argues that moderns TNCs can practise law evasion, setting up factories in
countries that do not have pollution controls or health and safety legislation. They may also
sell good, pharmaceuticals particularly, which have been declared unsafe to poorer
Carrabine et al criticise this Marxist position arguing that such behaviour is not limited to
capitalist countries. They refer to the nuclear plant at Chernobyl arguing that some of the
most dangerous and lowest paid work existed under a communist regime.