First 343 words of the document:
1. Globalisation refers to the increasing interconnectedness of societies.
2. Globalisation has many causes. For example, the spread of new information
and communication technologies, the influence of the global mass media and
cheap air travel.
Global criminal economy
1. Held argues that globalisation has led to the increasing interconnectedness
of crime across national borders.
2. What led to the globalisation of legitimate activities also led to the spread of
transnational organised crime.
3. Globalisation has led to creating new opportunities for new crimes and new
offences such as cyber crime.
4. As a result of globalisation, Castells argues that there is now what is called a
`global criminal economy.' This comes in a number of forms:
Sex tourism: Rich individuals from western countries fly to third
world countries for sex (sometimes with minors.)
Cyber crime: ID theft, child pornography etc.
Drug trades: Smuggling of illegal drugs in the west.
Green crimes: The dumping of toxic waste in third world
5. The global criminal economy has both a demand side and a supply side. The
demand for the transnational organised crime's products and services by the
west is the reason for its large scale. However the global criminal economy
could not work without a supply side who provide these products and services.
Global risk consciousness
6. Globalisation has created new insecurities and has produced a new mentality
of risk consciousness where risks are seen as global rather than local.
7. Much of our knowledge of risks is provided to us through the media who tend to
exaggerate the views of the dangers we may face.
8. In the case of immigration, the media would create a moral panic about the
9. A result of this is the intensification of social order: the UK has toughened its
borders. For example, airlines would be fined if they bring undocumented
Globalisation and Capitalism Taylor's theory
Other pages in this set
Here's a taster:
Taylor argues that globalisation has led to the changes in the patterns and
extent of crime.
2. Globalisation has allowed transnational corporations to stop manufacturing for
low wage countries resulting in insecurities, unemployment and poverty.
3. Marketisation has encouraged people to see them selves as individual
consumers, undermining social cohesion.
4. The lack of legitimate jobs destroys self respect and drives the unemployed to
seek for illegitimate ones such as the drug trading business.
Here's a taster:
Evaluation of traditional criminology: The advantage of this theory is that it has a
defined subject matter. However it is criticised for accepting definitions of crime
as they are shaped by powerful organisations to serve their own interests.
2. Green criminology: Any action of harm to the physical environment, humans and
non humans is a crime even if no law has been broken. This is a more radical
3. Eco centric: Humans and the environment are interdependent, thus
environmental harm hurts humans too.
Here's a taster:
Cohen is interested in the way states conceal and legitimize their criminal
actions. He states that democratic states legitimize their actions in more complex
ways than dictatorship states. He demonstrates this in 3 stages:
Stage 1 it didn't happen.
Stage 2: It happened, but it's not what it looks like.
Stage 3: It happened but our actions are justified, we have a reason.
The Neutralisation theory.
1. Skyes and Matza identify five neutralisation techniques that delinquents use to
justify their deviant behaviour.…read more