Globalisation Revision Guide Q5

This is a revision guide based on OUP Press textbook and case studies

Case Studies: Siemens, China, Bio Gas

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GCSE Geography| Question 5| Globalisation | Paper 2
What are the Key Ideas for this Topic?
The Concept of globalisation and the recognition of global independence.
The influence of developments in ICT and transport
pros & cons of TNCs
Change in Manufacturing location
Globalisation and Energy demand
Globalisation and Food supply
Reducing the impacts of globalisation
The Concept of globalisation and global interdependence
Globalisation - the system of interaction among the countries of the world in order to develop the global economy.
Globalisation is "The process of increasing integration (coming together) of countries and
their economies around the world through trade and cultural exchange."
Globalisation is caused by international trade,international investment& improvements in
communications .
Globalisation has made countries more interdependentwhich means they rely on each
other's resources and services.
The influence of developments in ICT and transport
Improvements in ICT (Information and communication Technology) & Transport have increased globalisation by increasing
trade and investment:
How does the development of ICT increase Globalisation?
Improvements in Technology include; email, the internet, mobile phones and faster phone lines that carry more information.
These improvements have made it quicker and more convenient for businesses all over the globe to communicate with each
other
This means a company can have its headquarters in one country and have branches in other countries. E.g. Nike's
Headquarters are in Oregon, USA and has many branches situated in South-east Asia.
How does the development of transport increase Globalisation?
Improvements in Transport include; increase in airports, high speed trains & larger cargo ships with standardised containers.
These improvements have made it quicker and more convenient for businesses all over the globe to communicate to each
other in person.
This also makes it easier to source supplies from all over the world as well as importing their products all over the world.
The improvements of ICT & Transport have allowed the development of Call centres abroad & Localised Industrial regions:
Call Centres Abroad:
Example: !n 2004, Aviva moved 950 call centre jobs from the UK to India and Sri Lanka, as it costs 40% less than in the UK
Call centres are used by some companies to handle telephone enquires about their business.
An improvement in technology means that it is just as easy to phone someone in a foreign country as in the same country.
Lots of call centres have relocated abroad because the labour cost is cheaper which increases
the profit of the company.
Localised Industrial Regions: Example= Motorsport Valley
Example: motor sport companies have offices in Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire e.g. Renault Formula 1 team. People like drivers
and engineers can easily fly into the area. Use the internet to easily send and receive information and data about their cars to people
around the world. Motorsport Valley is called a technology cluster with high tech companies working closely together.
Improvements in ICT and transport have allowed some industries to develop around a specific region that's useful to them,
but still have global connections to get all the other things they need using satellites and undersea cables.

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Motorsport Valley is a global centre for engineering- taking graduates from nearby top Universities- Oxford and Cambridge
Relies on good communication links ­ (phones and transport) to export 60% of its products and services.
The Pros and Cons of TNC's
Transnational Corporation- Companies that produce and sell products in different countries.
E.g. Nokia has its headquarters in Finland and operates globally with offices in Asia/USA
TNC's increase globalisation by linking together countries through the production & sales of goods.…read more

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Siemens provides primary healthcare clinics on wheels for the rural population in India, treating over 60,000 people.
disadvantages:
Working conditions in the factories can be very harsh and sometimes without air conditioning facilities.
Some workers do not receive benefits and are left to pay for health treatment out of their little received payments ($10 a
day)
In December 2008 Siemens was fined $1.34billion after being found guilty of bribery around the world.…read more

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The Percentage of China's GDP that came from agriculture fell from 30% to <15% between 1978 and 2004.
Number of products produced has increased rapidly e.g. 1978. China sold 4000 TVs. 2004.China sold 75 million TVs
China manufactures a large range of goods e.g. computers, furniture & Clothes.
Many TNC's have factories in China e.g. Nike and Disney
Reasons for growth in Manufacturing in China:
Cheap labour - There is no single minimum wage in china; it differs from province to province. E.g.…read more

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Burning fossil fuels releases Carbon Dioxide which adds to global warming. This will cause the sea level to rise, cause extreme
weather and will make some species extinct. Using more fossil fuels will increase Global warming.
Burning fuels also releases Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide which dissolves in water in the atmosphere and can cause
acidic precipitation. The acid rain can kill Animals as well as plants.
Gathering wood for burning causes Deforestation which can cause damage to many ecosystems and habitats.…read more

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Cash crops are those which are produced for the purpose of generating cash or money.
Examples of cash crops include: Coffee, sugarcane, Jute and rice.
Positives:
There are many advantages to cash crop farming such as an increased source of income/ better quality of life for the farmer, generates
salaries and wages for the employees and farm workers, and government revenue through taxes.
Negatives:
However, it may also have adverse effects.…read more

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Using Renewable Energy
Energy needs to be sustainable. This means it needs to allow people alive today to get what they need (energy), but without
stopping people in the future getting what they need.
The idea of sustaining came from the Bible in which God named us as protectors and sustainers of the world he created for
us.
Producing energy using Fossil fuels (Coal, oil, and wood) is NOT sustainable as they will run out and there won't be any left for
future generations.…read more

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The Carbon Credits Trading Scheme
Countries that come under the emissions target by 2012 will be rewarded by receiving carbon credits which they can sell to
countries that aren't meeting their emission target.
Countries that help poorer countries reduce their emissions can earn more carbon credits. This is good because it means that
poorer countries will be able to reduce their emissions quickly.…read more

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Suggest reasons why TNC's move their factories to LEDC's. (6 Marks)
10. Describe one other reason why factories are moved to NIC's (2 Marks)
11. Describe what is meant by the term "deindustrialisation". (1 Mark)
12. Describe the effects of deindustrialisation on MEDC's. (2 Marks)
13. Describe and explain the recent growth in manufacturing in China. (8 Marks)
14. Explain why globalisation has increased the global demand for energy (2 Marks)
15. Explain ONE social impact of building more nuclear power plants. (2 Marks)
16.…read more

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