Glacial Revision Notes - Cold Environments AS

AQA AS Geography

Cold Environments

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  • Created on: 23-03-12 22:47
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Case study ­ Canadian Wilderness
Activity Time Sustainability Evaluation
Traditional Life:
The few people that lived there were a 100% dependent on the environment. As it provided them for a place to hunt, gather food and
farm. As the settlements were very old, they had developed sustainably and in harmony with the environment.
On behalf of the TNCs:
The pipeline had to be altered from its original plans in 1974. They had to change the route, change the height, put it on legs
and only construct in certain seasons
Make sure that all shipping routes are executed well to stop another Exxon Valdez
Tourists are told to have the highest respect for the environment (in 05/06 there were 6000 tourist, compared to 01/02
Over fishing had to be stopped, now there is a cap on fishing of all animals
Make sure they are a certain distance from the animals, as their chemicals can cause infertility
On behalf of the natives:
Have to hunt different food
Their tradition and way of life has been compromised as they become affected by goings on else where
What is the development:
There has always been some exploitation of the area, such as wailing and sealing. And also the Hudson bay company in Canada. But in
recent years there has been a big increase in oiling, tourism, fishing and mining.
The pipeline had to be altered from its original plans in 1974
Muskrat trapping, caribou hunting, and fishing on the porcupine
Each family had their own trapping area. This is an area that has been passed down from generation to generation.
Source of meat and hide for boots, moccasins, mitts, traditional outfits, and other decorative things, for generations.
Everything of the caribou is used
As the ground is frozen due to the permafrost, this means poor vegetation for farming
People are dependent on the caribou, for their existence, which global development now threatens
Short growing season due to the seasonal light
Animals specially adapt to there natural environment, but if it changes they will struggle to survive as they cannot adapt
quickly enough to human and unnaturally induced changes.
January 2008, a proposal was put forward to American congress, to open up land at 1002 of the Arctic refuge for petroleum exploration
and development.
People in favour of the development:
The oil industry
All three Alaskan members of congress (2008)
Many people in Alaska who, each year, receive money from the Alaska permanent fund (set up in 1970 as a saving account for
state revenues from taxation of the oil industry, in 2007 every eligible citizen received $1654)
Those who argue that the USA's national security depends on producing its own oil as far as possible, to avoid relying on imports
from other countries.
Government sponsored gravel quarry, Brought jobs, and money in to the community. In 2002
People against the development
Native Alaskans and first nations Canadians who rely on the caribou herds for their way of life and much of their food and income
The small t growing, Yukon and Alaska tourist countries
Wildlife and wilderness conservationists in Alaskan. Canadian mainland USA and the rest of the world ­ the rest of the world - in a
recent US poll, 70% of Americans called for permanent protection of the Arctic refuge's coastal plain
Apart from the obvious arguments, about conservation, these opponents to development say that:
There is only a 50/50 chance of discovering oil in the 1002 lands
Even oil industry estimates suggest that production from this area would only produce enough oil and gas to meet total US
demand for 90 years
The strategic argument is flawed because is flawed because legislations has recently been passed, supported by Alaska's
representatives in congress to allow Alaska oil will be exported to Asia.
1989, Exxon Valdez oil tanker crashed. Over 40 million litres of oil spilled into the ocean, and its estimated that over 250 000 fish and birds
The modern development kills of some wild life, that the locals have lived of for their entire history and now its gone so they have no food. This
also mean the younger generation do not have to opportunity to learn like their ancestors did, making life more difficult for the locals. So they
have to find paid employment, which doesn't exist in the wilderness so they have to leave, and go to urban areas. Which stps their nomadic

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Glacial Trough
From 1km to 50k long, and 0.5km to 3km wide
Generally straight due to the ice is inflexibility (creates bigger creavesses)
Steep sides and flat floor, with truncated spurs
Base occupied by alluvium deposit, and possible misfit fiver or roches moutannees
Hanging valleys, with waterfalls to make alluvial fans
Paternoster lakes
Till ­ All material deposited directly by the ice, largely unsorted in nature. But will point in the direction that glacier flowed in.…read more

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Sublimation ­ where the air turns in to ice crystals
GLACIAL BUDGET - is the balance between accumulation and ablation over the year.…read more

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Arctic Circle 66.6oc In a ice age, the ice advances from the poles towards the equator. And also cold comes
down from high mountains to lower ground
Antarctic Circle 66.6oc Not in a ice age, the ice retreats going back to the poles. And also the cold rises
back up to higher ground.
Temperatures fluctuate every:
21 000 years
40 000 years
100 000
This is called the Milankovitch cycle:
Wobble ­ 26 000 years 21.5oc
Tilt ­ 40 000 years 24.…read more

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Alpine Environments
They are the area where glaciers form, mostly above the tree line
There is less air per cubic meter, in a higher altitude so therefore less heat.
As heat can be trapped in thick particuled air, and air particles are sparser at altitude
Himalayas, Karakoram, Andes, Rockies, Alps, New Zealand Alps, Norwegian Alps
The Tibetan and Bolivian plateaus, have permafrost, despite there latitude
When more accumulation occurs than ablation, the glacier advances.…read more

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Warmer regions, where temperatures cannot penetrate so deep. Discontinuous because, it does not happen
near lakes and rivers.
Sporadic frost -1oc to 0oc
Temperatures are around freezing, so it can only occur in isolated spots
Depends on:
Air temperature
Moisture in the ground ­ drainage and saturation
Sunlight to heat and thaw
Active layer:
The area of the ground on the surface:
It is the first area to freeze or thaw. From night and day to summer and winter.…read more


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