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Aim Policy/Reform Positive effects of the reforms: Limitations/ negative consequences
To make Liberal Increase wealth & + 1890-1913: Real wages rose by 25% Liberals feel more isolated from these
institutions prosperity. Use govt + Restrictions of child (under 12) & female labour (11 reforms.
more popular budget surplus to invest hours) increased jobs for male workers. Higher class (elite) fear the church's
(aimed mostly at in railways etc. +Compulsory rest days. increasing influence and the rise of
moderate Social Reform: + 1912: Franchise was extended to men over the age of SOCIALISM.
Catholics and Restriction on labour 30. Business owners angered, they lost 1 da
socialists) and extending the +Taxes on food had been reduced. work.
franchise. + More investment in the country's infrastructure. E.g. Industrial owners' profits suffered by
*Railways nationalised in 1905: improving roads, farming and the quality of drinking lowering the taxes
stimulated demand for stock
and engines. water. Increased government spending = high
Alfa Romeo opened in Milan +National military service & education helped create debt.
1910 "Italians". Children could now focus on education,
Olivetti (typewriters) 1908
+Govt expenditure on public works (agricultural giving them a better future. Also helped
improvements, drinking water, based in the S!) was create national identity!
increased, until, by 1907, the state was spending 50% Smaller workforce= more jobs for adult
more than it had done in 1900 . Helps to decrease the N-S Factory owners forced to pay more for a
It is believed that Giolitti believed, that when he increased the
franchise, he had finally out "Marx in the attic". Suggesting
that the demands of Socialists had finally been met.
Pacify workers State impartiality in + Gave workers more rights, which was always well Industrial reform did not go far enough
& socialists labour disputes received. Socialists (who could now vote thanks to
don't' automatically go + The army and the police didn't attack trade unions or increase expansion of the franchise), now
against the workers. workers whilst they were settling the dispute. As it did in voted against the Liberals in elections.
the 1890s. Wheat riots. Pharmacists lose more money.
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Provide free treatment + Trade unions gained more powers. These reforms upset the elite/industria
for malaria. + Quinine: Supplied for free to treat Southerners of who didn't want workers to have more
malaria rights. The state now "supported" the
Industrialists begin looking for a more
authoritarian government. Rise of fasc
Petty Bourgeoisie (seen as servants to
aritstocracy/ bourgeois class).…read more
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Eventually leads to the complete
withdrawal of support for Giolitti .
Forcing him resign in March 1914.
Achieve Italian Extend male franchise + Illiteracy rate fell in the South: Narrowing the N-S Divide Increasing the franchise alienated Libe
identification National service and 1871- 88.3% of the adult population and the bourgeoisie who believed that
with the state education. 1911- 65.…read more