Germany pre-WW2 timeline

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 18:43
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Year Event
Spring- failed Ludendorff offensive. Germans starving after 4 years of war and Allied
September- Germans starving after 4 years of Allied blockades
October- Sailors in Kiel mutinied after being ordered to carry out suicidal bid for glory.
Kaiser didnt send army to quash mutiny anti-war/anti-Kaiser strikes (one of peace terms
was that he abdicate), demonstrations all over Germany. Social Democrats (leading
Reichstag party) theoretically socialists committed to social change, but leader (Friedrich
Ebert) wanted to save Kaiser. Colleagues knew this would cause revolutionaries from
extreme-left to take over and were scared of this
1918 7th November - Social Democrats told Kaiser he should abdicate or they would join
9th November­ Strike in Berlin. Social Democrats scared that extremists would take control
of revolution, so one of them announced Kaisers abdication and setting up of a German
Republic (led by them and coalition of socialist parties). Ebert Chancellor
10th November­ Kaiser exiled to Holland
11th November­ Armistice signed
Ebert organised Freikorps (volunteer corps of ex-soldiers) and accepted armys help to
suppress left-wing revolutionaries (Social Democrats scared of losing rich elites support-
the loss of Kaiser had already been too extreme for many)
DAP founded
January­ Spartacist uprising - extremist wanted real revolution, especially Spartacus
League. However, leader (Rosa Luxembourg: great speaker and writer) wanted to wait for
workers to be disillusioned with new government, whilst most wanted to seize power whilst
there was still turmoil. Uprising led by Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht. Berlins key
buildings taken over. Army, called by Ebert, violently suppressed uprising and killed leaders
January­ German workers party (DAP) founded. Hitler asked to join in Sep. after speaking
at meeting
February- New democratic government of Germany was declared in February 1919 at the
small town of Weimar
March + April­ Army quashed two other Communist uprisings
28th June­ Germans signed the Treaty of Versailles
August­ The Weimar Republic begins
September- Hitler invited to join DAP by Anton Drexler (founder) after speaking at a meeting

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Year Event
February- Hitler and Drexler write 25 point programme. DAP NSDAP
March­ Kapp Putsch led by Eirhardt (Freikorps leader) and Wolfgang Kapp (politician) whi
planned to form a new right-wing government. Result of order received that month to
disband Freikorps by government. They stressed the Dolchstoss theory, Communist threat
1920 and Treatys unfairness. Reichswehr (army) supported them, but trade unionists and civil
servants supported government so striked on Eberts request.…read more

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Year Event
Hitler published his ideas for the Nazi party in Mein Kampf. SS formed by Himmler
(personal bodyguard for Hitler, Aryan role-models, black-shirts). Himmler also led SD
(intelligence service for country and party)
Locarno Treaty signed, this was signed by Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Germany.
1925 Countries agreed to respect their common borders or other countries would help attacked
country and that Germany would never take back Alsace and Lorraine. Treaty didnt cover
Germanys Eastern border with Poland even with stable government, uncooperative.…read more

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Year Event
Nazi party largest. Communist party second largest - both offering escape from depression
Hitler spoke in up to 5 cities a day, organised mass rallies and conveyed messages in films,
records and radios to try to win presidency at elections. In first round no majority, but
second round, Hitler polled 13 million votes, Hindenburg 19 million and the Communist
leader polled only 4 million.…read more

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Year Event
Hitler appointed chancellor as von Papen convinced Hindenburg hed be easy to control.
Nazis held 3 of 12 positions in coalition government. Hindenburg disliked Hitler but
prepared to work with him
Law for the Encouragement of Marriage introduced loans for couples with non-working
wives. ¼ of loan free (didnt have to be paid back) for every child to raise falling birth
rate. Mothers cross awarded on Hitlers mothers birthday to women with big families
(bronze: 5 children, silver: 6, gold: 8).…read more

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Year Event
Regional governments replaced with Hitler-approved Reich governors
April- Peoples Court established. Independent but run by Nazi supporters and Hitler or
Minister of Justice could change sentences
Jews banned from public places (parks, playing fields, pools)
30th June­ The night of the long knives - SA wanted to merge with the army ( army felt
threatened).…read more

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Year Event
Almost 40 billion marks spent to subsidise firms, create jobs and build 700km autobahns
Volkswagen scheme organised by Labour Front to subscribe to 5 marks per week to fund
car, but actually only encouraged saving no one managed to afford it
Over 80% of youth in Nazi Youth movements
Mar.­ Jews had to register all possessions.
1938 July­ Jews had to carry identity cards; Jewish doctors, dentists and lawyers are forbidden to
work for Aryan Germans.
8th - 9th Nov.…read more


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