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Section 1 ­ The Weimar Republic
Kaiser Wilhelm I
During the First World War of 1914-1918, Germany was run by
the Kaiser (King).
· The Kaiser was in charge of the Government and the
· The Government decisions were made by the
Chancellor ­ but the Kaiser chose who the Chancellor
was, so he could always pick Chancellors that would do
what he wanted.
· The people could vote, but Mp's didnt really have any
power.…read more

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The Weimar Republic's Constitution
The New German Government was called the Weimar Republic, named after the town outside Berlin where it was
started. The Government started in 1918, two days before Germany surrendered in WWI.
The First President of the Republic was Friedrich Ebert, and he helped decide what the constitution should be like.
A constitution is a set of written laws that say what the Government can and cannot do, and how it will work. The
Weimar Constitution was made law in 1919.…read more

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Proportional Representation (PR) Article 48 (The suicide clause)
Very modern and fair voting system, where a party gets a This was the 48th article of the constitution. It allowed the
number of seats directly proportional to the % of votes it President to rule by decree in an emergency; this meant that
got. If your party got 12% of all votes in Germany, they he could make decisions and laws without having to ask the
would get 12% of seats in the Reichstag.…read more

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What it was
Basically, it was the peace agreement that was forced
on Germany in 1919 because they lost World War I.
Countries that lose wars usually have to sign
agreements with the winners ­ they agree to give over
certain things in return for not being invaded or
Why did Germany expect a fair treaty? What did the winning Powers want?
· Germany was in real trouble.…read more

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· The TOV created many problems for
Germany ­ especially it made it weaker and
· The Weimar Republic was blamed for the
Treaty because they signed it ­ making the
new Government even more hated.
· In fact, Ebert, the president didn't want to
sign it ­ the army told him to because they
said they would be unable to stop an allied
invasion of Germany.…read more

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January 1919 ­ The Spartacists March 1920 ­ The Kapp Putsch
Politics ­ Communists, extreme left wing Politics ­ The Freikorps, extreme right wing
Leaders ­ Karl Liebnecht and Rosa Luxemburg Leaders ­ Wolfgang Kapp, one of the Freikorps commanders
Aims ­ To overthrow the Weimar Republic and create a Aims ­ To overthrow the Weimar Republic and create a
Communist Government in Germany military right wing dictatorship; to ignore the TOV.
What they did ­ Tried to start a Revolution in Berlin.…read more

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Crisis 1 ­ The French Invade the Ruhr
Why? ­ In January 1923 Germany couldn't keep up its Reparations
payments to France, and "defaulted" (didn't pay)
What? ­ France decided to teach Germany a lesson by invading its most
important industrial area, the Ruhr. The Ruhr contained over 80% of
Germany's steel production. The French thought they could take over this
valuable steel production to make up for Reparations Germany had
Effects -
· The Weimar Government was outraged.…read more

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Exam and source questions will often ask you about the "1923 crisis" ­ that usually means both the invasion
of the Ruhr and hyperinflation, as they are linked. You need to be able to describe what happened, why, and
what effects it had on Germany. The next section looks at how far Germany was able to recover.
Gustav Stresemann and Recovery from the 1923 crisis.…read more

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Other Countries don't · Stresemann signs the Brings Germany into ... The Weimar Republic finally
trust Germany Locarno pact, agreeing European politics again. had to give in and accept the
never to use violence to Countries are willing to talk TOV. Many Germans hated the
settle disputes again to Germany and deal with French and British still for the
· The Young Plan (1929) her again. This leads to harsh peace terms.…read more


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