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Germany 1919-1939 ­
A Depth Study

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Section 1 ­ The Weimar Republic

Kaiser Wilhelm I
During the First World War of 1914-1918, Germany was run by
the Kaiser (King).

· The Kaiser was in charge of the Government and the
· The Government decisions were made by the
Chancellor ­ but the Kaiser chose who…

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The Weimar Republic's Constitution

The New German Government was called the Weimar Republic, named after the town outside Berlin where it was
started. The Government started in 1918, two days before Germany surrendered in WWI.

The First President of the Republic was Friedrich Ebert, and he helped decide what the…

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Proportional Representation (PR) Article 48 (The suicide clause)

Very modern and fair voting system, where a party gets a This was the 48th article of the constitution. It allowed the
number of seats directly proportional to the % of votes it President to rule by decree in an emergency; this…

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What it was

Basically, it was the peace agreement that was forced
on Germany in 1919 because they lost World War I.

Countries that lose wars usually have to sign
agreements with the winners ­ they agree to give over
certain things in return for not being invaded or

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· The TOV created many problems for
Germany ­ especially it made it weaker and
· The Weimar Republic was blamed for the
Treaty because they signed it ­ making the
new Government even more hated.
· In fact, Ebert, the president didn't want to
sign it ­…

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January 1919 ­ The Spartacists March 1920 ­ The Kapp Putsch

Politics ­ Communists, extreme left wing Politics ­ The Freikorps, extreme right wing

Leaders ­ Karl Liebnecht and Rosa Luxemburg Leaders ­ Wolfgang Kapp, one of the Freikorps commanders

Aims ­ To overthrow the Weimar Republic and create a…

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Crisis 1 ­ The French Invade the Ruhr

Why? ­ In January 1923 Germany couldn't keep up its Reparations
payments to France, and "defaulted" (didn't pay)

What? ­ France decided to teach Germany a lesson by invading its most
important industrial area, the Ruhr. The Ruhr contained over 80% of…

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Exam and source questions will often ask you about the "1923 crisis" ­ that usually means both the invasion
of the Ruhr and hyperinflation, as they are linked. You need to be able to describe what happened, why, and
what effects it had on Germany. The next section looks…

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Other Countries don't · Stresemann signs the Brings Germany into ... The Weimar Republic finally
trust Germany Locarno pact, agreeing European politics again. had to give in and accept the
never to use violence to Countries are willing to talk TOV. Many Germans hated the
settle disputes again to Germany…


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