Germany 1913-1939

These revision notes really helped me for my resit. These and the paper was really nice as well :P

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Germany 1918 ­ 1939
Psychological effects
o The people looked for someone to blame for the defeat
o The war made the Germans bitter and angry
o The Germans were becoming famous for its conflict and squabbling
o All the prewar hopes were dashed
o They were proud of Germany before the war
o Germany was unstable
o Demobilised soldiers were coming home armed
o They were joining movements against the Kaiser
o Many German workers were bitter at the restrictions that were placed on their earnings during the
o Factory owners made fortunes during the war
o There were huge gaps between the living standards of rich and poor
o Many soldiers and civilians despised the new democratic leader
Physical effects
o Farming was disrupted as the farmers were being conscripted
o By the end of the war Germany was producing less than half of what it did
o It could not import food
o In 1916, the supply of potatoes ran out
o 750,000 people died from starvation
o National income was 1/3 of what it was in 1914
o The state was spending 1/3 of its budget on war pensions
o Industrial production was 2/3 of what it was in 1913
Political effects
o The Reichstag was weak even before the war
o There was no opposition against the Kaiser as the working and middle classes had no say in how
the country was run
o Opposition leaders were imprisoned
o Germany was run as a military dictatorship by the Kaiser
o Germany became unstable after a revolution in October ­ November 1918
o 5th January ­ Spartacists took over the Government's newspaper and telegraph bureau
o Didn't capture any other buildings
o Movement was crushed within 10 days
o 13 freikorps killed compared to 100 sparticists
o Lacked support from other leaders until after it had started
o Didn't have support from other leftwing groups
o Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht were murdered shortly after the uprising
o The Freikorps killed thousands more Communists in several more uprisings

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Ebert's tactics caused bitterness and he feared that Germany would go the same way as Russia
September Hitler was sent to a meeting of the German Worker's Party
Treaty of Versailles
o May ­ Presented with the treaty
o June ­ Treaty was signed by 2 representatives
o Guilt, Army Reductions, Reparations, German Territory, League of Nations
Germany was forced to take all the blame for the war (Clause 231)
They claim the war was `selfdefence'
The air force was disbanded
The army was…read more

Page 3

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Article 48 is there to stop the President from making In the time of an emergency, the President could make
rules when he wants to by suspending democracy too many rash decisions.…read more

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Passive Resistance led the French to act harshly against the workers ­ killed 100 workers and
expelled 100,000 protesters from the area.…read more

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He negotiated the reparations to be paid over a longer period of time (part of the Dawes plan)
o This ended Germany's economic crisis quickly
o German economy was relying on US loans ­ unemployment was still a problem and some sectors
were still in financial trouble
Hitler wrote Mein Kampf in prison which clarified and presented all of the Nazi policies and ideas, in prison
o He also came to the conclusion that they could not seize control of Germany by force
May ­Fought…read more

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The German industry has recovered from the hyperinflation and economic depression
900 dance bands in Berlin alone
Industrial growth had started to slow down and a depression in farming
Nazis are still trying to appeal to the German workers
Germany had achieved the same levels of production as before the war
Reparations were being paid and exports were increasing.
Nazis gained 3% of the voting population
o Nazi support in Neidenburg (East Prussia) was at 2.…read more

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Hitler makes a deal with the Nationalists to gain financial backing
Nazi support in Neidenburg (East Prussia) is at 25%
o Hitler had never been there and there was no local Nazi party
Unemployment was almost 6 million people
The average German's income had fallen by 40% since 1929
July ­ Nazi party was the single largest party ­ 230 seats ­ Hitler wants the post of Chancellor
o Hindenburg refuses Hitler the position ­ appoints Von Papen
November ­ Nazi party has almost…read more

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The other parties underestimated the Nazis
The social democrats thought that the people would see right through their electioneering
The opposition ended up quarrelling amongst themselves instead of uniting against the
500 people were killed in political violence across a 7 week clash
Weimar still using Article 48
Von Schleicher resigns
January 30th ­ Hitler is appointed Chancellor
o Only appointed because they believed they could control Hitler
o Only 2 other Nazis in a Cabinet of 12
o Celebrations throughout Berlin
o…read more

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Government protected religious freedom
o Church stayed out of political activity
The Catholic Church
The concordat was an understanding between Hitler and the Church. Hitler promised that
the Catholics would be left alone to carry out their religious work.
The Protestant Church
The Nazis united all of the protestant churches under a ProNazi Reich Bishop. The
churches adopted the Nazistyle uniforms, salutes and marches.…read more

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They were also encouraged to stay at home
o They were fired from employment
o They were advised what to cook (leftovers)
o They were advised what to wear ­ no makeup, plaited hair and dieting was frowned upon, not to
wear trousers
o They were given awards for having children ­ Gold cross for 8 and were given a privileged seat at
Nazi meetings
o The League of German Maidens enforced the idea of motherhood and it was reinforced at school
Students were advised…read more








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