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Slide 1

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The reforms were intended to subdue the opposition from protectionist
liberals and socialists.
Old age and Invalidity law amended (1899):
Increase old age pensions.
Extend compulsory insurance to various new groups .
Sickness insurance law amended (1903):
Gives longer and more generous help to workers in ill health.
Restrictions on the hours young people could work in factories (1908)…read more

Slide 2

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Weltpolitik wasn't always a force for cohesion.
It was the actions of an unaccountable murderous army
that created the political crisis.
Threatened the cohesion of the Blue-black block (the
broad alliance of the conservative, liberal and centre party'
Affair highlighted:
Lack of accountability for the colonial service.
The need for Parliamentary control over the financial affairs
of the colonies.…read more

Slide 3

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Centre party and SPD opposed the increasing importance of the colonial
Reichstag was subsequently dissolved.
The election was fought on the issue of nationalism.
Bulow entered with the support of the Pan German League and threatening a
Red-Black victory would mean the Centre and SPD would rule.
Bulow succeeded in frightening voters to back candidates from the Bulow
Bloc.…read more

Slide 4

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The destruction of the Bulow Bloc didn't necessarily threaten Bulow's
position, the DT affair did.
The Kaiser was effectively making foreign policy without consultation.
Kaiser blamed Bulow for failing the censor the interview.
In 1909 Bulow was defeated when his budget failed to pass through the
Reichstag, however the real cause of his fall was the lack of confidence the
Kaiser had in him.…read more

Slide 5

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Bulow had survived for over a decade at the centre of German politics by
being able to satisfy all vested interests.
He retained the backing of the Kaiser by flattery and turning situations to his
Gained broader political support through Weltpolitik.
His failure to stand by the Kaiser highlighted the that the office of chancellor
was determined by the personal whims of the Kaiser.…read more

Slide 6

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Incident of military indiscipline escalated into a political crisis that encapsulated all
the contradictions and tensions of Germany.
The Reichstag vote of no confidence was dismissed by the chancellor who was
responsible to the Kaiser.
The Governor of Alsace Lorraine was replaced by a more reactionary figure who
opposed the 1911 constitution.
The political parties in the Reichstag were too timid in the opposition to the crisis.
There was confusion over the boundary between military and civilian authority.…read more

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