German History, From Kaiser to Fuhrer, [Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939 - 45]]

This is the final unit I will be posting of my summarised sections of the History Edexcel from Kaiser to Fuhrer book - I hope they have been very useful to you guys.

HideShow resource information
Preview of German History,  From Kaiser to Fuhrer, [Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939 - 45]]

First 164 words of the document:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
Timeline:
1939:
November: Elser tries to assassinate Hitler
1940:
May: France invaded
1941:
April: Order to remove crucifixes in Catholic Bavaria meets opposition
May: Deputy Hess flies to Scotland
June: Invasion of Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa begins
August: Bishop von Galen publically challenges the T4 programme
December: Fuhrer Order ­ `Simplification and Increased Efficiency in Armaments Production'
December: Germany declares war on USA
1942:
January: The Wannsee Conference
1943:
January: German Sixth Army surrenders at Stalingrad
February: Goebbels `Total War' Speech
February: Executions of Hans and Sophie Scholl
March: Operation Flash fails to kill Hitler
July: Bombing of Hamburg creates firestorm
May: Axis armies surrender in North Africa
1944:
June: D-Day
July: Bomb plot fails to kill Hitler
1945:
February: Dresden destroyed
April: Bonhoffer executed

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
The Events of the War
The Outbreak of War
September 1939: Poland was invaded and conquered by Germany
Britain and France joined war
But by end of 1940: France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway and Luxembourg had been
conquered = ToV avenged and European domination achieved
Britain remained ­ mainly because Hitler became focussed on Soviet Union
June 1941: Germany invaded Russia
Operation Barbarossa
Despite 1939 signing of Soviet Pact ­ Hitler was always intending to…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
Feb 1941: German troops invaded North Africa in support of Italian Allies
After a series of impressive victories
May 1941: Invaded Egypt but British counter attacked
But British preoccupied with Japan ­ Germany managed to capture part of Egypt and 30,000
prisoners
However, German advance halted when defeated by British troops
Anglo-American forces defeat Germany in Morocco
May 1943: Axis forces in North Africa = surrendered
Italy:
September 1943: Allies invade Italy ­ Italy surrendered…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
Very few Germans wanted war - but there was bedrock support for 1939 regime
Support even during war ­ mainly because Regime was sensitive to issues of
rationing/shortages on home front ­ govt didn't want repetition of rationing from WW1
Despite rationing ­ considerable consumer sacrifices not made until 1942
1939: Rationing introduced ­ fair + sufficient ­ but quality decline
However, as parts of Europe conquered - improvement in general supply of foodstuffs
(especially…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
300,000 Germans killed by Allied bombing, 700,000 injured and 2 million homes destroyed
German tried to provide bomb victims with accommodation and financial compensation
`Blitz' spirit maintained by many ­ but
By 1943: population of some areas (like Rhineland) bombed and demoralised
Worsened by approach of Soviet armies
Morale sank even lower ­ after weapons were ineffective against Allies
Goebbels tried to raise morale: commissioned blockbuster escapist films (The Adventures of
Baron Munchausen - 1943)…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
Thereafter ­ opposition came from individuals and small underground groups (rather than
single group)
KPD and SPD formed small groups, published reports and maintained contact with exiled
leaders
Red Orchestra ­ anti-Nazi communist group formed ­ resistance cells set up [coordinated by
Uhrig]:
1941: 90 resistance cells in Berlin
Produced paper/pamphlets attacking regime and calling for resistance
However, communist resistance = vulnerable to Gestapo infiltration
1943: Communist movement collapsed ­ leader captured
Individual acts: Jewish…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
Many were arrested, tortured and executed
Army
1939: Army had become subordinate part of regime
Oath of allegiance = loyalty to Hitler
Blitzkrieg victories = Hitler military Genius
1943: some dissidents emerged:
Some: result of long term opposition to regime they had morally despised from beginning
Majority: Opposition more pragmatic:
Increasing political interference of SS = intolerable
Generals on eastern front ­ shocked by atrocities committed against regime enemies
and implementation of extermination
For most:…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
Therefore Army resistance confined to few individuals = leadership to naive and isolated
to pose real threat
Bomb plot = partly restores some dignity/respect to army ­ but the failure did not
restore the tarnished image of the army
1945: Total defeat = shattered myths of military invincibility + `stab in the back'
The German War Economy
War Production
Outbreak of war 1939: planning for war economy = split among competing agencies:
Ministry of War…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
= Speer controls all industrial output and raw materials
Radicalisation
Speer aimed to introduce labour, time and space saving measures = boosting production
1943: Armaments Commission ­ to standardise production ­ allowing greater production:
More floor space = production of Me109 at 1000 a month
Reduced number of different tank/vehicle models = greater productivity
Central control of raw materials and more realistic contracts = rise in armament output
Better processes = cut amount of raw…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Unit 9: What was life like in wartime Germany, 1939-45?
Raw Materials - Iron Ore:
Germany's lack of natural resources (espec. High quality iron ore) = shaped Nazi aims
Goring developed low quality iron ore ­ but could never meet the demands of military needs
= Germany partly dependant on imports:
Constant amount of ore imported from Sweden (5m tons)
Annexations of Austria, Poland and Alsace-Lorraine = huge quantities of high quality iron
ore ­ [6.…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »