German History, From Kaiser to Fuhrer, [Unit 3: The Impact of the WW1 on Germany]

This is Unit 3 of Edexcel GCE History; From Kaiser to Fuhrer, 1900-45.

This section just deals with the impact of the first world war on Germany -  I've selected all the key bits and tried to make sense of it.

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Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany 1914-18




Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany
1914-18

Time Line:
1914:
August ­ War breaks out; Belgium attacked
August ­ On the Eastern Front, Germany wins the battle of Tannenberg…

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Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany 1914-18




Reasons to the Outbreak of War
Anticipation of war ­ huge demonstrations held in July in Berlin ­ 100,00 people
When war broke out ­government presented it as defence against Slav aggression ­ morally
right and…

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Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany 1914-18




Western front ­ Allies suffered from attacking Germany = gained little
­ and attacks against Turkey (German allies) = failure
Falkenhayn decided that victory = western front and defeating Britain with submarine
campaign
By 1916 ­…

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Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany 1914-18




1915 ­ 20 voted against war credits
Some radicals (Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg) wanted revolution for peace ­ but were
prison most of time
Some pacifists ­ German Peace League ­ but marginal and small.
Supporters…

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Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany 1914-18




-New Agency ­ Supreme War Office ­ created under General Groener ­ oversee process of
economic mobilisation
-Auxiliary Labour Law (1916) ­ mobilised all available male labour ­ granted collective
bargaining and conciliation boards for workers…

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Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany 1914-18




Urban working class ­
-resented govt controls and the lack of food
-resented black market - therefore blamed middle-classes and Jews
-Frustration sometimes turned to violence ie Nuremburg
Middle-class ­
-savings worth less and less
-mittelstand…

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Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany 1914-18




July Crisis
Most SPD supported war tentative ­ but cautiously
Entry of America and Russian revolution ­ difficult to justify war
Kaiser (persuaded by Bethmann-Hollweg) promised reform ­ `Easter offer': end Prussia's
3-class voting system and…

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Unit 3: What was the Impact of the First World War on Germany 1914-18




What was the Impact of Defeat?
Bulgaria surrender (September 1918)
29 September: Ludendorff decided on Armistice talks with Allies
4th October: Prince Max appointed chancellor and formed coalition government [Centre,
progressives + SPD]
Kaiser now prepared…

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