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A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid
Minerals may formed by:
Crystallisation from a melt - quartz, feldspar, mica
Metamorphic recrystallization - calcite
Evaporation - halite
Crystallisation as cement from flowing pore waters
Crystallisation from hydrothermal fluids
There are 10 ways to identify minerals
1. Crystal shape
2. Colour
3. Streak
4. Lustre
5. Hardness
6. Cleavage
7. Reaction to acid
8. Density
9. Magnetism
10.…read more

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We can use HCl to create a reaction. Calcite fizzes with the HCl and galena emits a rotten egg like
Density = V olume
The minerals is weighed. The eureka tube is filled up with water. The mineral is placed in the eureka
tube and the water that is displaced is collected and measured.
This is useful for identifying magnetite.…read more

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Mineral identification table
Mineral Chemical Mohs Colour Streak Lustre density other
Gypsum CaSO42H2O 2 Colourless, white, White Very 2.3 Powdery
tinted yellow variable
Halite NaCl 2.5 Colourless to white, White Glassy 2.2 Salty taste
may be pink
Muscovite mica Silicate 2.5 Colourless but may White Glassy 3 Flexible,
look silvery layers
Biotite mica Silicate 2.5 Black to dark brown White Glassy 3 Flexible,
Galena PbS 2.5 Lead-grey Lead-grey Glassy 7.5 Rotten egg
with HCl
Calcite CaCO3 3 Colourless or white White metallic 2.…read more

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The minerals can be put into 6 groups:
1. Oxides
2. Sulphides
3. Halides
4. Carbonates
5. Sulphates
6. Silicates
The oxides contain oxygen and metals atoms.
e.g. Haematite - iron oxide (Fe2O3)
Magnetite - iron oxide (Fe3O4)
Cassiterite - tin oxide (SnO3)
The sulphides contain sulphur and metal atoms.
e.g. Galena - lead sulphide (PbS)
Pyrite - iron sulphide (FeS2)
The halides contain halogen and metal atoms.
e.g.…read more

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Minerals precipitate into gaps of sediments to become lithified.
Cleavage A property of a mineral where it regularly breaks: Quartz-0, Mica-1,, feldspar-2,
calcite- 3
Crystallisation The gradual formation of a crystal form a liquid
Density Density = Mass / weight G/cm2
Dull A luster that is not shiny and is dark. EG Haematite
Faults A fault is the movement of the rock on either side. When that movement is sudden,
the released energy causes an earthquake.…read more

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Veins A vein is a distinct sheet like body of crystallized minerals within a mineral
Vitreous Viteous is a mineral that is glasslike in appearance or texture
The rock cycle
The rock cycle is a repeating process that causes various types of rocks to form and decay.
The processes in the rocs cycle are varied
Catastrophism is an event that occurs very quickly. e.g. landslides
Gradualism is an event that happens of a long period of time. e.g.…read more

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Deformation Seconds - millions of years Catastrophism and gradualism
Uniformitarianism is the theory that the earth was formed and has evolved through the same natural
geological processes operating today.
James Hutton was the creator of the theory. He is known as the father of geology. He said "the
present is the key to the past"
Unconformity is a buried erosion surface separating two rock masses of different ages, indicating
sediment deposition was not continuous.…read more


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