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Geology
Notes

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Minerals
A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid
Minerals may formed by:
Crystallisation from a melt - quartz, feldspar, mica
Metamorphic recrystallization - calcite
Evaporation - halite
Crystallisation as cement from flowing pore waters
Crystallisation from hydrothermal fluids

There are 10 ways to identify minerals
1. Crystal shape
2.…

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We can use HCl to create a reaction. Calcite fizzes with the HCl and galena emits a rotten egg like
smell.

Density
Mass
Density = V olume


The minerals is weighed. The eureka tube is filled up with water. The mineral is placed in the eureka
tube and the water…

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Mineral identification table
Mineral Chemical Mohs Colour Streak Lustre density other
compound

Gypsum CaSO42H2O 2 Colourless, white, White Very 2.3 Powdery
tinted yellow variable

Halite NaCl 2.5 Colourless to white, White Glassy 2.2 Salty taste
may be pink

Muscovite mica Silicate 2.5 Colourless but may White Glassy 3 Flexible,
look…

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The minerals can be put into 6 groups:
1. Oxides
2. Sulphides
3. Halides
4. Carbonates
5. Sulphates
6. Silicates

Oxides
The oxides contain oxygen and metals atoms.
e.g. Haematite - iron oxide (Fe2O3)
Magnetite - iron oxide (Fe3O4)
Cassiterite - tin oxide (SnO3)

Sulphides
The sulphides contain sulphur and…

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MINERAL KEY TERMS
Minerals precipitate into gaps of sediments to become lithified.
Cement

Cleavage A property of a mineral where it regularly breaks: Quartz-0, Mica-1,, feldspar-2,
calcite- 3
Crystallisation The gradual formation of a crystal form a liquid
Density Density = Mass / weight G/cm2
Dull A luster that is…

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Veins A vein is a distinct sheet like body of crystallized minerals within a mineral
Vitreous Viteous is a mineral that is glasslike in appearance or texture




The rock cycle

The rock cycle is a repeating process that causes various types of rocks to form and decay.






The processes in…

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Deformation Seconds - millions of years Catastrophism and gradualism



Uniformitarianism is the theory that the earth was formed and has evolved through the same natural
geological processes operating today.

James Hutton was the creator of the theory. He is known as the father of geology. He said "the
present is…

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