Geography - Urban environments (sustainable places, settlements)

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AQA Geography Revision
Changing Urban Environments ­ Unit 2A
Urbanisation
Urbanisation is the growth in proportion of a country's population living in urban areas. It's happening
in countries all over the world ­ more than 50% of the world's population currently live in urban areas
and this is increasing every day.
1) Most of the population in richer countries already live in urban areas. E.g. more than 80% of the
UK's population live in urban areas.
2) Not many of the population in poorer countries currently live in urban areas. E.g. 25% of the
population of Bangladesh live in urban areas.
3) Urbanisation is happening fastest in poorer countries
Urbanisation is caused by Rural ­ urban migration
This is the movement of people from the countryside to the cities.
Here are a couple of reasons why people in poorer countries move from rural areas to cities:
1) There's often a shortage of services in rural areas. People in rural areas believe the standard of
living is better in the urban area.
2) There are more jobs in urban areas. Industry is attracted to cities because there's a larger
workforce and a better infrastructure.
Here's a couple of reasons why people in richer countries move from rural areas to urban areas
1) Most urbanisation in rich countries occurred during the industrial and agricultural revolutions ­
machinery began to replace farm labour in rural areas and jobs were created in new factories in
urban areas.
2) In the late 20th century, people left run-down inner city areas and moved to the country. But
people are now being encouraged back by the redevelopment of these areas.
The Burgess model
Geographers have put together models of land use to show how a 'typical' city is laid out. One of the
most famous of these is the Burgess or concentric zone model.
This model is based on the idea that land values are highest in the centre of a town or city. This is
because competition is high in the central parts of the settlement. This leads to high-rise,
high-density buildings being found near the CBD, with low-density, sparse developments on the
edge of the town or city

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However, there are limits to the Burgess model:
The model is now quite old and was developed before the advent of mass car ownership.
New working and housing trends have emerged since the model was developed. Many people now
choose to live and work outside the city on the urban fringe - a phenomenon that is not reflected in
the Burgess model.
Every city is different. There is no such thing as a typical city.
The Hoyt model
Another urban
model is The Hoyt
model.…read more

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There is too much traffic in most urban environments, therefore most cities are improving public
transport, increasing car parking fines, bus priority lanes (making buses quicker) and pedestrianized
areas. This will all reduce the pollution of using cars, as well as making less traffic. People of a certain
culture will wish to stay in the same area as another with the same area. This creates villages with
only one culture. Therefore some services might be closer to these cultures such as religious sites.…read more

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Sustainable living means doing things in a way that lets the people living now have the things they
need, but without reducing the ability of people in the future to meet their needs.…read more

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