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The Coastal Zone
Intro:
The coastline is where the land meets the sea. Coastlines are dynamic they are
changing all the time. In some areas, the coast is being eroded or worn away,
whilst in others, new land is being deposited or built up.

Waves shape the coastline. The frequency…

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Waves can also be formed more dramatically when earthquakes or volcanic
eruptions shake the seabed. These waves are called tsunamis.







When waves reach the coast...

In the open sea, despite the wavy motion of the water surface, there is little
horizontal transfer of water. It is only when the waves…

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Destructive waves are formed by local storms close to the coast. They are so
named because they `destroy' the beach. Destructive waves are closely spaced
and often interfere with each other, producing a chaotic, swirling mass of water.
They rear up to form towering waves before crashing down onto the…

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This is the breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition.
Carbonation weathering is a type of chemical weathering that happens in warm
and wet conditions.

Rainwater has carbon dioxide dissolved in it, which makes it a weak carbonic
acid

Carbonic acid reacts with rocks that contain calcium carbonate e.g.…

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Erosion is when the rocks are broken down and carried away by something.
When a wave crashes down on a beach or smashes against a cliff, it carries
the out the process of erosion. There are several types of coastal erosion...

Hydraulic power: this involves the sheer power of the…

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hydraulic power and abrasion. Repeated erosion and enlargement of the
cracks causes a cave to form. Continued erosion deepens the cave until it
breaks through the headland, forming an arch. Erosion continues to wear away
the rock supporting the arch, until it eventually collapses. This forms a stack ­
an…

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The four other processes of transportation:

Traction: large particles like boulders are pushed along the seabed by the
force of the water

Suspension: small particles like silt and clay are
carried along in the water

Saltation: pebblesized particles are bounced
along the seabed by the force of the water

Solution:…

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Shingle beaches: steep and narrow. Shingle particles are large and the weak
backwash can't move them back down the beach. The shingle particles build
up and create a steep slope.

Coastal Landforms caused by Deposition:
Spits are just like beaches that stick out into the sea and they are joined…

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Coastal landforms on maps:





















Rising Sea level:
Global sea level is rising at a rate of about 2mm per year (20cm in the past
century). The cause of rising sea level is global warming. The two effects of
global warming on the sea levels:





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Melting ice: the melting of ice on land causes water that's stored as ice to return
to the oceans. This increases the volume of water in the oceans and causes
sea levels to rise.

Heating oceans: increased global temperatures cause the oceans to get
warmer and expand. This increases the…

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