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UNIT 1B ­ Water on the Land

Course Gradient Valley and Channel Shape
Upper Steep V-shaped valley, steep
sides,
Narrow, shallow channel.
Middle Medium Gently sloping valley
sides,
Wider, deeper channel
Lower Gentle Very wide, almost flat
valley
Very wide, deep channel

Vertical Erosion · Deepens the valley
· Dominant…

Page 2

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Deposition is when a river drops eroded material it is transporting. It happens when a river loses velocity. This may be
because:
· The volume of water falls.
· The amount of eroded material in water increases.
· The water is shallow.
· The river reaches the mouth.
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Meanders…

Page 3

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· The hard rock is undercut by erosion ­ it becomes unsupported and collapses.
· The collapsed rocks are swirled around where they erode the softer rock by abrasion. This creates a plunge pool.
· Overtime, more undercutting causes more collapses. The water fall retreats leaving a steep-sided gorge.

Flood…

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Rivers flood due to physical and human factors:
· Prolonged rainfall
After a long period of rain, the soil becomes saturated therefore, further rainfall can't infiltrate which causes runoff into
rivers. This would increase discharge and so, it would cause a flood.
· Heavy Rainfall
If there's heavy rainfall, there…

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Method What it is Advantages Disadvantages
Dams are built across a Reservoirs store water Dams are very expensive
DAMS & RESERVOIRS river in the upper course
HARD ENGINEERING
which is used as drinking to build.
of a river. An artificial lake
water or can be used to
is formed behind…

Page 6

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Environmental
· Rutland Water is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).
· Hundreds of species live around the reservoir.
· A large area of land was flooded during the making of the reservoir which resulted to destroying some habitats.

Sustainable management of the river:
· The supply from the…

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