Geography GCSE: Unit 1B - Water on Land

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  • Created on: 06-06-12 11:26
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UNIT 1B ­ Water on the Land
Course Gradient Valley and Channel Shape
Upper Steep V-shaped valley, steep
Narrow, shallow channel.
Middle Medium Gently sloping valley
Wider, deeper channel
Lower Gentle Very wide, almost flat
Very wide, deep channel
Vertical Erosion · Deepens the valley
· Dominant in the upper course
Lateral Erosion · Widens the valley
· Dominant in the middle and lower course
Four Processes of Erosion:
Hydraulic Action
· Force of water breaks rock particles away from river channel.
· Eroded rocks picked up by the river scrape and rub against the channel, wearing it away. Most erosion happens
by abrasion.
· Eroded rocks picked up by the river smash into each other and break into smaller fragments. Their edges also get
rounded off as they rub together.
· River water dissolves some types of rock (E.G. ­ Chalk and limestone)
Transportation of rocks:
· Large particles are pushed along the river bed by the force of water.
· Pebble-sized particles are bounced along the river bed by the force of water.
· Small particles like silt and clay are carried along by the water.
· Soluble materials dissolve in the water and are carried along.

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Deposition is when a river drops eroded material it is transporting. It happens when a river loses velocity. This may be
· The volume of water falls.
· The amount of eroded material in water increases.
· The water is shallow.
· The river reaches the mouth.
Meanders are formed by erosion and deposition.
Ox-bow lakes are formed from meanders.
Waterfalls and Gorges are formed by erosion.…read more

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The hard rock is undercut by erosion ­ it becomes unsupported and collapses.
· The collapsed rocks are swirled around where they erode the softer rock by abrasion. This creates a plunge pool.
· Overtime, more undercutting causes more collapses. The water fall retreats leaving a steep-sided gorge.
Flood Plains and Levees are formed by deposition.
River discharge is the volume of water flowing in a river.
1. Peak discharge ­ the highest discharge
2.…read more

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Rivers flood due to physical and human factors:
· Prolonged rainfall
After a long period of rain, the soil becomes saturated therefore, further rainfall can't infiltrate which causes runoff into
rivers. This would increase discharge and so, it would cause a flood.
· Heavy Rainfall
If there's heavy rainfall, there will be lots of runoff therefore increasing discharge causing a flood.…read more

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Method What it is Advantages Disadvantages
Dams are built across a Reservoirs store water Dams are very expensive
DAMS & RESERVOIRS river in the upper course
which is used as drinking to build.
of a river. An artificial lake
water or can be used to
is formed behind the dam
generate HEP.
­ this is called a reservoir.
Meanders are cut out by Water moves out of an Flooding may occur
CHANNEL building artificial straight
area quickly which reduced downstream the
STRAIGTENING channels.…read more

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· Rutland Water is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).
· Hundreds of species live around the reservoir.
· A large area of land was flooded during the making of the reservoir which resulted to destroying some habitats.
Sustainable management of the river:
· The supply from the river is sustainable as people are able to get as much water they need and they'll have
enough for the future.…read more


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