Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet full notes

Notes on

  • Restless Earth
  • Climate and Change
  • Battle for the Biosphere
  • Water World
  • Coastal Change 
  • Oceans on the Edge

I don't have the other notes on River Processes or Extreme Climates as I haven't studied them. 

Exams are soon I need as much good karma as I can get! Hope you find this useful :) 

P.S. I have written my own connections to help me remember stuff- ignore it if you like. 

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  • Created by: Faridae
  • Created on: 08-05-14 13:16

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THE RESTLESS EARTH

Earth:

Crust oceanic and continental crust which is solid
Oceanic crust is dense and basaltic, thin 68km
Continental crust is less dense and granitic, thick 2580km
Both up to 900 degrees Celsius

Mantle:
Outer mantle partially molten, made of peridotites, up to 1,600 degrees Celsius
Inner mantle…

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Plumes are parts of convection cells where heat moves towards the surface. They create
concentrated zones of heat and bring magma to the surface. If the magma breaks through the crust it
erupts as lava in a volcano. Some plumes form constructive plate boundaries and some form hotspots.

Hotspots are…

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Lava burns houses, starts forest fires Homelessness and animals lose habitats

Lahar dormant volcano which has turned into a
lake erupts causing hot water, ash and rocks to
flow out of the volcano and submerge
surrounding areas


Predict volcanic eruptions using:
Seismology Looking for vibrations and/or swelling and inflation
Analysing…

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3. Plates suddenly jolt with a lot of force
4. Energy is released as they move further and this is when people feel the earthquake

Richter scale: Numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake based on seismic
oscillations

Primary impacts of earthquakes Secondary impacts of earthquakes
Buildings collapse…

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MEDC San Francisco Earthquake 1989

57 deaths
Over 8 thousand injuries
People made homeless

Why:

- Collapsed buildings and damaged gas pipes
- Bay Bridge collapse
- Double Decker Freeway collapse
- Soil liquefaction damaged property
- Good disaster management plan
- Buildings earthquake proof
- Earthquake focus deeper underground…

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CLIMATE AND CHANGE



Air Polar Arctic Polar Continental Tropical Tropical
Mass Maritime Maritime Maritime Continental Maritime
Air Mass

From Greenland/ Arctic Central Europe North Atlantic
Arctic sea Africa

Weathe Cold showery Snow in Hot air dry summer Hot, dry Cloud, rain
r weather winter Cold air snowy winter air hot…

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We know that climate has changed a lot in the past as:

Fossils are found of animals and plants in places they are not found in today
Evidence of glaciation in regions now free of ice
Evidence from rocks show us what climate was like when they were formed
Evidence…

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Enhanced greenhouse effect:

1. Short wave radiation from sun passes through the atmosphere
2. Some long wave radiation passes back into space
3. Some long wave radiation is reflected off greenhouse gasses back to the earth warms up

Why is amount of greenhouse gasses rising?

Deforestation trees don't make oxygen…

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BATTLE FOR THE BIOSPHERE:

Rainforests are located on and around the equator between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of
Capricorn.

Factors that affect distribution of different biomes How?
Temperature Affects the length of growing season
Precipitation Affects distribution of rain throughout the year
Sunlight Determines amount of light…

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Rainforest Goods:

Rubber Tree sap
Food
Water through transpiration
Medicine: Rosy Periwinkle, Leukaemia



Rainforest Services:

Habitat
Regulate Hydrological cycle
Regulate Carbon cycle
Ecotourism
Photosynthesis Earths lungs 20% of Oxygen



Causes of deforestation:

Mining e.g. for Gold and precious metals
Cutting down trees for wood
Building new roads and cities
Cattle…

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