Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet full notes

Notes on

  • Restless Earth
  • Climate and Change
  • Battle for the Biosphere
  • Water World
  • Coastal Change 
  • Oceans on the Edge

I don't have the other notes on River Processes or Extreme Climates as I haven't studied them. 

Exams are soon I need as much good karma as I can get! Hope you find this useful :) 

P.S. I have written my own connections to help me remember stuff- ignore it if you like. 

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  • Created by: Faridae
  • Created on: 08-05-14 13:16
Preview of Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet full notes

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THE RESTLESS EARTH
Earth:
Crust oceanic and continental crust which is solid
Oceanic crust is dense and basaltic, thin 68km
Continental crust is less dense and granitic, thick 2580km
Both up to 900 degrees Celsius
Mantle:
Outer mantle partially molten, made of peridotites, up to 1,600 degrees Celsius
Inner mantle solid, made of silica based minerals, temperatures of up to 4,000 degrees Celsius
Core: Liquid, made of iron/nickel, up to 5,000 degrees Celsius
Constructive Plate Boundary Mid Atlantic ridge, Iceland VOLCANOES
North American Plate ] [ Eurasian Plate
Collision Plate Boundary Himalayas Indian Plate Eurasian Plate
EARTHQUAKES/ FOLD MOUNTAINS
Conservative Plate Boundary EARTHQUAKES
San Andreas Fault, San Francisco
Destructive Plate Boundary The Andes FOLD MOUNTAINS/ EARTHQUAKES
Why do tectonic plates move?
Radioactive decay in the core is a heat source.
This drives convection currents in the mantle
Magma rises and cools then falls back down and cycle starts again
The convection currents slowly drag tectonic plates.
Tectonic plates move at a few millimetres per year

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Plumes are parts of convection cells where heat moves towards the surface. They create
concentrated zones of heat and bring magma to the surface. If the magma breaks through the crust it
erupts as lava in a volcano. Some plumes form constructive plate boundaries and some form hotspots.
Hotspots are isolated columns of hot material rising in the mantle which are created by convection
plumes in the mantle. They are a location for volcanoes e.g. Hawaii's Mauna Loa.…read more

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Lava burns houses, starts forest fires Homelessness and animals lose habitats
Lahar dormant volcano which has turned into a
lake erupts causing hot water, ash and rocks to
flow out of the volcano and submerge
surrounding areas
Predict volcanic eruptions using:
Seismology Looking for vibrations and/or swelling and inflation
Analysing Greater amount of gases being released greater amount of magma. If sulphur
composition of dioxide levels increase the volcano is likely to erupt in a matter of days.…read more

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Plates suddenly jolt with a lot of force
4.…read more

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MEDC San Francisco Earthquake 1989
57 deaths
Over 8 thousand injuries
People made homeless
Why:
- Collapsed buildings and damaged gas pipes
- Bay Bridge collapse
- Double Decker Freeway collapse
- Soil liquefaction damaged property
- Good disaster management plan
- Buildings earthquake proof
- Earthquake focus deeper underground
- Roads and hospitals unaffected
Earthquake proof MEDC building Earthquake proof LEDC building
Damper acts as a pendulum reduce swaying of Light thatch roof
building
Cross Bracing prevents floor collapse Walls made of mud and…read more

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CLIMATE AND CHANGE
Air Polar Arctic Polar Continental Tropical Tropical
Mass Maritime Maritime Maritime Continental Maritime
Air Mass
From Greenland/ Arctic Central Europe North Atlantic
Arctic sea Africa
Weathe Cold showery Snow in Hot air dry summer Hot, dry Cloud, rain
r weather winter Cold air snowy winter air hot and mild
caused summers weather…read more

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We know that climate has changed a lot in the past as:
Fossils are found of animals and plants in places they are not found in today
Evidence of glaciation in regions now free of ice
Evidence from rocks show us what climate was like when they were formed
Evidence from ice cores in Greenland and Antarctica show us how much carbon dioxide and
oxygen was in the atmosphere when the ice formed
Natural causes of Climate Change:
Volcanic Eruptions Ash, dust and gas block…read more

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Enhanced greenhouse effect:
1. Short wave radiation from sun passes through the atmosphere
2. Some long wave radiation passes back into space
3. Some long wave radiation is reflected off greenhouse gasses back to the earth warms up
Why is amount of greenhouse gasses rising?
Deforestation trees don't make oxygen out of carbon dioxide
Rice farming methane
Demand for beef methane
Transport
Burning fossil fuels for energy
MEDCs are more responsible, as well as countries with a large population and lots of industrial areas
e.g.…read more

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BATTLE FOR THE BIOSPHERE:
Rainforests are located on and around the equator between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of
Capricorn.
Factors that affect distribution of different biomes How?
Temperature Affects the length of growing season
Precipitation Affects distribution of rain throughout the year
Sunlight Determines amount of light available for
photosynthesis
Humidity Controls rates of evapotranspiration
Latitude The position of a place north or south of the
equator expressed in degrees
Altitude The height of something above sea level
expressed in meters.…read more

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Rainforest Goods:
Rubber Tree sap
Food
Water through transpiration
Medicine: Rosy Periwinkle, Leukaemia
Rainforest Services:
Habitat
Regulate Hydrological cycle
Regulate Carbon cycle
Ecotourism
Photosynthesis Earths lungs 20% of Oxygen
Causes of deforestation:
Mining e.g.…read more

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