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GEOGRAPHY IGCSE

THEME 1. POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT

SECTION 1: POPULATION DYNAMICS

1.1 Population Explosion
1.2 Population Change
1.3 Population Change in Different Countries
1.4 Population and Resources
1.5 Population Density
1.6 Population Pyramids
1.7 The Demographic Transition Model
1.8 The Dependency Ratio
1.9 Migration Key Terms
1.10 Push and Pull…

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- Contraception is inefficient
- Some religions forbid the use of contraception
- Women have limited rights so they get married at a young
age and do not have careers
- Boys are highly valued so people have lots of children to
make sure that some of them are male…

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- Deforestation and urbanisation is required
- Space is very important and this can lead to frequent civil
wars
- With so much overcrowding disease spreads rapidly (see
case study)
- There is a lot of competition for jobs so there is much
unemployment
- There is not enough housing…

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Was the policy a success?
- It has reduced the Chinese population by an estimated
250m people
However, there are many other negative implications:
- Female infanticide
- `Little emperor' syndrome
- Ageing population
- Urban/rural differences
- Male/female sex imbalance

1.4.3 Case Study: Aids and HIV in Africa
AIDS…

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Countries with a high population density are said to be
densely populated.
Population density = population/area
Sparsely populated regions tend to have/be:
- Harsh climates (very hot/cold)
- Mountainous
- Dense forest/too much rain or prone to drought/not
enough rain
- Little industrial development
- Few communication links
Densely populated…

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Population 118,342,000
Capital Dhaka
Annual Income $240 per capita
Reasons for the high population density:
- Men are highly cherished within Hindu culture
- The River Ganges is a sacred river
- The land in Bangladesh is extremely flat
- Bangladesh has a long stretch of coastline
- If a…

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- The infant mortality rate is low due to the continuity
between the first and second age cohort
- The country has a large elderly dependant population
- The country is an MEDC
*Remember to quote statistics from the pyramid in your
analysis

1.7 The Demographic Transition Model

Stage 1:…

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DEATH RATE
Death rates continue to fall with continued improvements
in healthcare and sanitation.
TOTAL POPULATION
The population continues to increase.

Stage 4: Low Fluctuating
Birth Rate - Low
Death Rate - Low
Total Population - High
BIRTH RATE
Birth rates are low as more women enter the workforce
and…

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workforce
- Many young people are employed caring for the elderly.
This harms a country's competitiveness, since they are not
producing products for export.
- Decline in services aimed at younger people
- Increase in house prices and housing shortages in
retirement locations

1.8.3 Case Study: Sidmouth, Devon, UK
-…

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to the outskirts of a city

1.10 Push and Pull Factors
There are two sets of factors that cause people to
migrate:
Push Factors = Bad things about the place that people are
moving from that 'push' them towards their new home
Pull Factors = Good things about the place…

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