Geography complete syllabus notes (except map skills)

Complete IGCSE syllabus including case studies, discluding map skills and field work.

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1.1 Population Explosion
1.2 Population Change
1.3 Population Change in Different Countries
1.4 Population and Resources
1.5 Population Density
1.6 Population Pyramids
1.7 The Demographic Transition Model
1.8 The Dependency Ratio
1.9 Migration Key Terms
1.10 Push and Pull Factors
1.11 Consequences of Migration
1.12 Case Study: Polish Migration to the UK
1.1 Population Explosion
This is a rapid growth in world population which has
accelerated since the 1800s. Prior to this, the world's
population was low and relatively constant (see graph and
table). The main causes of the population explosion are:
- Increasing life expectancy due to improved healthcare and
- Continuing high birth rates in LEDCs
- Population momentum (when birth rates are high in one
generation there are more adults to have children in the
next generation so birth rates remain high)
1.2 Population Change
Population change = (BR-DR) + Net migration
BR = Birth rate: This is a measure of a country's fertility. It
is expressed as the number of live births per 1000 people
in one year.
DR = Death rate: This is a measure of a country's mortality.
It is expressed as the number of deaths in a year per 1000
of the population.
Natural change = BR - DR
Net migration = Immigration - emigration
1.3 Population Change in Different Countries
Birth rates are high in LEDCs because:
- There is no welfare so people have lots of children to look
after them when they are old
- The infant mortality rate is high so people have lots of
children to make sure that some of them survive

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Contraception is inefficient
- Some religions forbid the use of contraception
- Women have limited rights so they get married at a young
age and do not have careers
- Boys are highly valued so people have lots of children to
make sure that some of them are male
- Child labour means that children can bring in money
Birth rates are low in MEDCs because
- Most MEDCs have materialistic and consumerist societies
and children cost a lot of money so people have fewer…read more

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Deforestation and urbanisation is required
- Space is very important and this can lead to frequent civil
- With so much overcrowding disease spreads rapidly (see
case study)
- There is a lot of competition for jobs so there is much
- There is not enough housing for everybody ­ lots of people
are forced to live on the streets or build their own home
and this leads to the development of squatter settlements
- There is never enough food to go round…read more

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Was the policy a success?
- It has reduced the Chinese population by an estimated
250m people
However, there are many other negative implications:
- Female infanticide
- `Little emperor' syndrome
- Ageing population
- Urban/rural differences
- Male/female sex imbalance
1.4.3 Case Study: Aids and HIV in Africa
AIDS is the leading cause of death in Africa. In some
countries of southern Africa 40% of the adult population are
HIV positive.…read more

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Countries with a high population density are said to be
densely populated.
Population density = population/area
Sparsely populated regions tend to have/be:
- Harsh climates (very hot/cold)
- Mountainous
- Dense forest/too much rain or prone to drought/not
enough rain
- Little industrial development
- Few communication links
Densely populated regions tend to have/be:
- Coastal
- Flat
- Fertile
- Lots of employment opportunities (industries, factories,
- Well-connected with good (natural or physical)
communication links
1.5.…read more

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Population 118,342,000
Capital Dhaka
Annual Income $240 per capita
Reasons for the high population density:
- Men are highly cherished within Hindu culture
- The River Ganges is a sacred river
- The land in Bangladesh is extremely flat
- Bangladesh has a long stretch of coastline
- If a family has a female child they have to pay a dowry (a
large payment) to that child's future husband
- The delta soils around the River Ganges are extremely
- Large proportions of the…read more

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The infant mortality rate is low due to the continuity
between the first and second age cohort
- The country has a large elderly dependant population
- The country is an MEDC
*Remember to quote statistics from the pyramid in your
1.…read more

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Death rates continue to fall with continued improvements
in healthcare and sanitation.
The population continues to increase.
Stage 4: Low Fluctuating
Birth Rate - Low
Death Rate - Low
Total Population - High
Birth rates are low as more women enter the workforce
and contraception becomes more effective. Increases in
consumerism also lead to couples delaying parenthood.
Death rates are low.
The population is high and constant.
1.…read more

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Many young people are employed caring for the elderly.
This harms a country's competitiveness, since they are not
producing products for export.
- Decline in services aimed at younger people
- Increase in house prices and housing shortages in
retirement locations
1.8.3 Case Study: Sidmouth, Devon, UK
- Sidmouth is a coastal resort in Devon which is a
retirement migration hotspot
- 60% of residents are aged over 65
1.8.…read more

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Push and Pull Factors
There are two sets of factors that cause people to
Push Factors = Bad things about the place that people are
moving from that 'push' them towards their new home
Pull Factors = Good things about the place that people are
moving to that 'pull' them towards their new home
1.…read more


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